Tagged: Kant

LI The Future of Media Illiteracy

Does the idea of too high a price to pay for achieving one’s biological goals make any sense? In Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House, the main character Nora has achieved reproductive success, she has three kids and her husband has just become head of the bank so together they will bring up their kids in the best possible conditions. She nevertheless leaves house, husband, and children to work on her own because she does not want to fail her “duty to herself” any longer. Can a “duty to oneself” be jeopardized by the pursuit of biological goals?

According to biosociologist Brant Wenegrat, “motherhood in societies like ours does predict an increased risk of depressive disorders” (Illness and Power, 1995). Some scholarly confirmation of the playwright’s insight, then, as motherhood and parenting, i.e. biological success itself would lead to increased biological risk, in the shape of dysfunctional conditions for the children raised by a depressive mother. Or is it nonsense? This prediction is not confirmed in the book Darwinian Psychiatry (1998), by McGuire and Troisi, which states that male celibates are the most at risk of depression, precisely because of their biological failure (failed reproductive machines). Two opposite conclusions, then, from scholars of the same school of thought. For McGuire and Troisi women’s mental health is not as dependent on the success of biological reproduction as men’s, whereas for Wenegrat successful biological reproduction tends to affect negatively women’s mental health and not men’s.

Modern work, now, is not an evolved biological media for male competition (contrary to what evolutionary psychologists Tiger and Fox, 1971, claim), as for millenaries slavery was the rule and dominant males did not work (savanna-activity, i.e. hunter-gatherer environment of evolutionary adaptedness EEA-like hunting was aristocrats’ hobby throughout the world in the past of civilization). In this way, and, again, contrary to the views of some EP scholars, modern work goes against biological tendencies. If a duty to oneself exists and, if we take Nora’s example, opposes the mere pursuit of biological goals, then modern work may be the way to fulfill one’s duty to oneself instead of biological goals. Yet in evolutionary terms I see nothing that warrants nor could even possibly warrant this ‘literary’ conclusion.


Gustave Le Bon, in his Psychologie des foules, talks about women who throw acid at their lovers’ face as something frequent in his days. Today, the media talks about this, pointing the finger to men, mostly in Pakistan and other Muslim countries, throwing acid in order to oppress women because those men are Muslims. In fact, EP scholar David Buss also talks of Jamaican women doing the same with their female rivals nowadays. Yet talk about acid attacks these days, and you will find that people associate it with Muslim men. There is a Sherlock Holmes story by Conan Doyle about a woman throwing acid at her lover’s face too, to confirm Le Bon (The Adventure of the Illustrious Client).


Outline for a dystopian sci-fi novel. As a foreign body inside the societies where their communities live, the Lormocks have a perception of their own, the basic idea of which being that their community’s interest only partially overlaps with that of the host societies, which they seek to exploit. They are parasites. Neuroparasites. For a long time our knowledge of parasites was perfunctory; we knew lice and other pest that suction blood and weaken the body, and that’s about all. It took us decades to find out that rabies is a parasite that compels the dog host to bite in order to carry the parasite over to more hosts. Now we have a much broader picture of what parasites are doing: They control their host, sometimes they castrate it, sometimes they do not allow him to take food, they do as they please with their host. As the Lormocks achieve middleman-minority status due to their ingroup solidarity inside societies that they help make atomistic, they endeavor to control the channels of public expression, and of course they use these according to their community’s interest. Sycophancy toward the Lormocks, serving this foreign and parasitic body’s purposes, becomes a sine qua non of individual success –and fitness– in society.


Subliminal advertising: the elephant penis in the living room.


Since the July 2016 failed coup in Turkey, Erdogan has been conducting massive repression in the country. Thousands of civil servants are being sacked and their names published so they will never find jobs again in the country. Intellectuals are also targeted.

272 writers from all over the world have signed a petition against the judicial trials that will open against journalist Ahmet Altan and his brother, economist Mehmet Altan.

Both are accused by the government of having sent subliminal messages on TV about the impending coup. As far as I know, a world premiere! (Le Monde, Sep 21, 2016)

Turkey’s President Erdogan is thus giving support to my research. I am available as an expert at the trial.


Taco Subliminals

There where similar charges [of the use of subliminal techniques, (like the “rats” in “democrats” in U.S. 2000 campaign trail, if you remember] by Andrés Manuel López Obrador against the right-wing candidate Felipe Calderón in the Mexican presidential elections of 2006, in which the color scheme for a popular soft drink and its publicity mirrored those of Calderón’s party. Opponent saw the similarity as a sneaky way to circumvent campaign spending limits by a corporate supporter of Calderón.” (Charles R. Acland, Swift Viewing: The Popular Life of Subliminal Influence, 2011).

Acland’s aim is to debunk subliminals as just another “urban legend.” Faced with such incredulity, it is really heartening to find support from intellectuals like Eric McLuhan [see Index for Professor Eric McLuhan’s contributions]. The example above shows that the use of non-verbal persuasion techniques is part of the public debate now, as it should be in media-literate constituencies. Information society must not amount to mass manipulation by mass media but to media literacy of the public.


The Age of Empathy (2009) by primatologist Frans de Waal talks of an experiment by Swedish professor Ulf Dimberg : When people are shown visuals of angry faces they tend to frown and of happy faces they tend to smile, and this is true also when the faces are subliminal! De Waal says Dimberg’s results have been met with resistance…

Dimberg, Thunberg, & Elmehed (2000), Unconscious facial reactions to emotional facial expressions. Psychological Science 11: 86-89.


Jacques Castonguay’s book La Psychologie au service du consommateur (1978), said by prefacer Nicolle Forget, the then chair of Canada consumers association, to put the limelight on subliminal advertising (« Il aura eu le mérite aussi de ramener dans l’actualité la question de la publicité subliminale »), is terribly disappointing. Albeit not in denial, Castonguay says Marshall McLuhan and Wilson Bryan Key’s views are “exaggerated,” so the topic is expedited in a couple of pages and he can devote the rest of his book to conveying the nauseating platitudes that business insiders wrote for the public.


Take Buddhism. Basically a personality cult (in the person of the Buddha).


The three following statements cannot be true taken together and studies show that 3/ is consistently true.

1/ The activity and development of the brain’s right hemisphere is not taken into account in IQ tests. (Marshall and Eric McLuhan, Laws of Media: The New Science, 1988)

2/ Asians are right-hemisphere people. (Ibid.)

3/ Asians (Northern Asians) have the highest scores in IQ tests.

Well, they may be true taken together but only if Asians are superior to Westerners even in the skills that are not Asians’ best (left-hemisphere skills), that is, if Asians are superior in everything.


Laws of Media’s ascribing several contemporary art forms to the brain’s right hemisphere, such as atonal music, finds some resistance in me. These forms appear much too much intellectual (left hemisphere) to me – professors’ experiments rather than art proper. If atonality is an expression of acoustic space (p.52), yet our ears (as evolved) want no part in the business of atonality. “As evolved”: According to evolutionary biology, that is, not since the phonetic alphabet, but in the African savanna. Atonal music is an intellectual, abstract, left-hemisphere business: Left-hemisphere radicalism.

Same with relativity theory. Not that I know to which hemisphere it belongs; but I find it inconsistent with Kant’s transcendental idealism, that is, if time and space are a priori forms of our perception I don’t think it makes sense to say time-space can be distorted by massive objects.

Same with psychoanalysis. It has been exploded. Randy Thornhill, for instance, has concisely demonstrated that an Oedipus complex makes no evolutionary sense at all. “The Oedipus complex proposed by Freud would never have been given any credence if anyone had considered the evolutionary fate of a trait that produced such incestuous desires (Thornhill and Thornhill 1987). Because of the reduced viability of offspring produced by mating of close relatives, close inbreeding is selected against. Thus, Freud postulated as fundamental to human nature a trait that simply cannot exist as an evolved human psychological adaptation.” (Thornhill and Palmer, A Natural History of Rape, 2000)

Same with Copenhagen consensus. If the idea is that we should get rid of determinism in science, then it makes no sense, by definition. The uncertainty principle only tells us that our perceptual endowment allows us not to perceive all causes and determinations in nature – not that these causes and determinations do not exist in nature.


Electric telephone man

Electric man is discarnate (McLuhan). What about the man who is used to telling his friends: “I don’t use the phone anymore except for emails”?

He is both discarnate and dyslexic.

Email is discarnate nudism because electric man cannot conceal his dyslexia.

Yet we can. Electric man has by now invented the simplified writing system that Eric McLuhan envisioned for our dyslexic times. He has made it almost completely phonetic:

4 => for

2 => to

8 => -ate ex. contempl8

Same process in French: “c’est” becomes just “c” etc.


Some exploration of the fringe: Reverse Speech


First thing first, one interesting thing about Australian David Oates’s reverse speech theory is that it is debunked on Wkpd by the same sort of arguments that are used against subliminal perception, namely “pareidolia, the tendency of the human brain to perceive meaningful patterns in random noise.

According to this theory, the unconscious mind expresses itself backward in our utterances.

When reading about this, I was reminded of a video I saw a few months ago (now withdrawn). In that speech by Obama, the President at some point says: “Let me express, let me express my faith &c.” Playing the passage backward, the author of the video hears, and convincingly so, for “Let me express, let me express”: “Serve Satan, serve Satan.” A creepy commentary about the President’s faith.

The author says he could not reproduce the same effect when recording himself saying these words, which is confirmed by Oates. Our utterances, when played backward, do not pronounce the same even when we pronounce the same speech. That leads to the question of the origin of pronunciation differences (accents &c). Why do some people never lose their local accent even after living many years in the capital city when others lose it very fast in the same transplant conditions?

The theory is fascinating at any rate. For one thing, it could never be designed nor tested before the invention of audio recording.

But above all, if the unconscious can understand reverse speech (words pronounced backward, as stressed by Bill Key: cf W.B. Key at the 1995 Judas Priest trial), why could it not express itself backward as well? Key’s research helps buttress Oates’s contentions.


Oates wanted to check the truth of evangelists’ assertions that rock music contains reverse satanic messages. He found some intentional reverse messages but also was led to the discovery that reverse speech can carry meaningful messages.

Using Jungian notions, he then says the word “Satan” occurs rather often in reverse speech because it’s embedded in the collective unconscious, and it serves to express negative feelings.


There is a school of thought that sees elaborate clothing as a way to conceal bodily imperfections and thus distort the choice of a mate. A few German racialists (Heinrich Pudor, Richard Ungewitter…) adopted such views, and nudism was considered sound and healthy in some Nazi circles (German Nazi nude photograph magazines are collector’s items today). Scanty clothing, in that view, such as that of contemporary American youth, boys and girls alike, would be close to that philosophy. In the absence of matrimonial intermediaries, who take a careful look at and check the physical condition of the future partners in arranged-marriage societies, people need to check by themselves. In free (as opposed to arranged)-marriage societies, nudism, or close substitutes, is in order.


Global Village’s Pizza Gate

(Posted as comment to a since then withdrawn YouTube video, Nov 2016)

The case is rather strong as here presented, however I don’t see ‘proof’ in the technical sense. Yet it definitely should be sufficient ground for the police to further investigate in that direction.

What is new about the so-called Pizza Gate is that it is a criminal investigation carried out by internauts. Being public, it can’t help being a smear campaign at the same time, and I guess this is the reason why several people involved in this new kind of investigation have been banned or shadowbanned on Twitter after the pizza parlor concerned asked Twitter to do something about it or be held accountable for the smear campaign.

Yet, as good ol’ Marshall McLuhan said, we have entered the ‘global village,’ meaning we really are back to village life. For one thing it means privacy will shrink to nothingness or almost nothing, like in a traditional village. It also means, from what I gather from public Pizza Gate investigation, that ‘villagers’ will take charge of law and order themselves. Remember these ‘investigators’ mainly work on the evidence brought to them – brought to everybody in the village – by WikiLeaks. Advancing a technicality according to which all evidence available in this way is void because the source is a ‘spy,’ a ‘traitor,’ a ‘renegade,’ whatever, as is common and perhaps sound practice in the traditional views of law courts, would seem extremely disconnected with the real world under the circumstances of the global village. And remember, these circumstances are here to stay.


The level of tax imposed on bachelors is indecent. I can’t even keep a mistress. One has to be a married man for that.


The beautiful people of adverts

Facial symmetry is more attractive than asymmetry and high-status people are more symmetric than poor people in general. Advertisers just pick attractive people (and usually airbrush the model according to systematic, technical rules): Turns out we associate these models with wealthy people.

Asymmetry can be due to adverse environmental conditions during development (deprivation) and betrays a less healthy phenotype –”wealth is health”– but the answer is not to torture our natural biases by trying to impose other, silly tastes on us, that would have us prefer crippled, perhaps sterile (in the case of obesity) persons.

Beauty is largely objective and a marker of health. Make all people healthier rather than trying, out of a misconceived sense of justice, to force unnatural tastes on people.

The beauty world of advertising systematically creates “supernormal stimuli” to which the real world can only be unequal. This is the true definition of the problem.


One result of behavioral science is that masturbation conditioning is particularly efficient. It even works with high psychotics – the least conditionable of all.


French journalists had once agreed they would make no news with politicians’ private lives. It shows they wanted no place for morality concerns in the public debate, which is an unjustified prerogative the journalists bestowed on themselves. This will not last, however. There have already been news on President Hollande’s affair with a B-rated actress a few years ago. They made news of it and the president’s popularity plummeted at once. Morality concerns ought not to be ignored.


McLuhanesque strolls

What’s the point of writing and publishing books, as literacy has ended? This thought brings me solace.

Also, in the literacy age, there was a public: It was made up by publishing houses and the press. Now the public has disappeared and thought is free.

Counter-culture is an ego trip now. Bad form. We’re the village.

The global village is already something real. Internet social networks are the village. The whole world on a “timeline” (Twitter jargon)! (English as single medium, all other languages due to be discarded?)

Thought becomes aphoristic: Think about the aphoristic-minded world of Twitter users whose every tweet cannot exceed 140 signs (280 now)! Literary heroes disappear. Academic scholars look awkward; the littlest rascal in the world can make fun of them and their ponderous knowledge in retweets as public as the original tweets. Journalists are corrected and insulted in front of their devoted readers. Comedians prove less funny than their followers. Actresses are less beautiful than their fans. Politicians receive sound advice from the administered herd.

We’ve all become sayers of sayings, each of us expresses the village wisdom. It’s tribal, deindividualized, exactly as predicted by McLuhan Marshall and Eric.

With the decline of the Gutenberg Galaxy, the written word is sheer lip service. It says whatever anybody wants to hear, upholds consensus. If the medium is the message, then the message is not even between the lines. It’s in quite another galaxy where literacy has no relevant use as such, only as distraction.


Libertarians defend personal liberty against the law but they seem to have nothing to say about personal liberty against mind control by big business, which has become a huge (muted) issue with the advent of scientific marketing. Against this control I see no other shield than the law, like Prohibition was a shield against the liquor industry’s endeavor to “break down sales resistance” by advertising and PR. The fake-news media opposed the Prohibition and contributed mightily to its inadequate enforcement (cf Upton Sinclair, The Wet Parade).


Mensa and GMAT

My correspondence from when I wanted to be a Mensa member without taking their tests.

Dear Sir or Madam, (to info@americanmensa.org)

On Mensa Website, qualifying score for the GMAT is “95% or above.”

At a second and last attempt after a crash course in 2004, I got 710 / 94%. My mother tongue is French and before taking my first GMAT test I only practiced English at school. Then, I took a second test after a few months in U.S.

Do you think that people having English as mother tongue are advantaged in the GMAT, or not at all? In case of a yes, shouldn’t the qualifying score for nonnative English speakers be adapted?

Given the time, and thus reflex, factor involved in the test, it seems English fluency (the test language) is important, which puts nonnative speakers at a disadvantage, although per se this fluency does not appear to be relevant to what Mensa membership is about. (July 5, 2017)



Thank you for the email. Unfortunately, the only way we have to evaluate evidence that is sent in is based on the test publisher’s normative data. To be honest, I am not certain how the GMAC calculates the scores on the exam so I cannot speak to whether or not they make those kinds of allowances. We accept the 95th percentile on the exam based on the fact that their norms are somewhat skewed by the population that takes the exam. The population that attends graduate school is not necessarily a representation of the general population so we allow for more than just the typical top 2 percent.

(Timothy Brookes, Mensa manager for membership and admissions, July 7, 2017)


Thank you very much for your reply.

Do you estimate that top 5% of graduate students population is an inclusive or rather restrictive approximation of top 2% of general population?

According to one source,

Factors such as native vs non-native English speakers, US vs non-US, white vs non-white, etc – generally don’t affect one’s score too much. In terms of covariance analysis, the variation between these subgroups was always less than 1/4 standard deviation.

I think we know the variation goes against nonnative speakers. In case you’d estimate the 95th percentile is not large already, would you be willing to take this variation into account too?

Now, according to Lawrence Rudner, GMAC’s chief psychometrician,

Yes, the GMAT test is administered in English and is designed for programs that teach in English. But the required English skill level is much less than what students will need in the classroom. The exam requires just enough English to allow us to adequately and comprehensively assess Verbal reasoning, Quantitative reasoning and Integrated Reasoning skills.” (link)

That the test only requires “just enough English” doesn’t preclude a variation factor between native and nonnative speakers, due to mental reflexes ingrained in native vs nonnative speakers and more consequential in time-constrained tests than in classroom attendance. Such a variation may justify Mensa to accept a tolerance margin for its admissions based on GMAT scores in the case of nonnative speakers.

If the variation is not “too much,” “less than 1/4 standard deviation,” as I understand the phrasing it is not altogether negligible inside the scope considered (the above tolerance margin). (July 11, 2017)



At this time, we do not take anything additional in to consideration for the GMAT. The 95th percentile score is the minimum we will accept. (Timothy Brookes, July 12)


Thank you, Timothy. I guess I’ll have to take the tests at Mensa France, then.

Yet I am curious how you get from “the population is somewhat skewed” to “2% translates into 5%”. Does the data support this? What does GMAC say about it? (July 12)

No more from Timothy. Let’s ask GMAC (Graduate Management Admission Council):

Dear Sir or Madam, (to customercare@gmac.com)

Mensa International is an “organization open to people who score at the 98th percentile or higher on a standardized, supervised IQ or other approved intelligence test.

People who score at the 95th percentile or higher on GMAT are, however, entitled to join in, and the reason is:

We accept the 95th percentile on the exam based on the fact that their norms are somewhat skewed by the population that takes the exam. The population that attends graduate school is not necessarily a representation of the general population so we allow for more than just the typical top 2 percent.” (Email from Timothy Brooks, manager of membership and admissions, Mensa USA)

According to your knowledge, does the data support this translation “98th=>95th”?

I took a GMAT test in 2004 and scored 710 / 94%. I asked Mensa if they took into consideration a tolerance margin for nonnative English speakers and they said they did not, so I have been asking them the exact same question as I am asking here, currently waiting for their answer. It is, however, my understanding that Mr Brooks’s phrasing above rather hints at a “guesstimate” on their part, a rule of thumb that should justify them to show some flexibility.

No answer. Between those who refuse considering a pinch of pliancy with their rule-of-thumb regulations and those who coldly disregard emails, talk of psychorigids!


Aristotle’s “prime mover” (as God) has been given the coup de grâce by Kant, with the latter’s antinomies, according to which it is beyond human reason to determine whether the world is finite or infinite, has begun or has been eternal. Each of both opposite conclusions on these two antinomies (there are four in the Critique of Pure Reason) is a contradiction in itself+. This being because our mental apparatus does not describe the thing-in-itself (which, presumably, could not have contradictions in itself without ceasing to exist). I find it a sound position to hold, with Kant, that no rational proof of God’s existence is to be expected in such conditions. The one proof would be the moral law, if it could be ascertained that it’s something true and not derived from the laws of nature (which, for Kant, is the case indeed, so in no way Kant can be called an atheist).

+Monotheisms answer one of these antinomies with a created world, and a prime mover, whereas Hinduism and Buddhism answer with an uncreated world, and both are convinced their position is rational.


There’s a passage in Uncle Tom’s Cabin where a ruthless slaveholder defends his practice and monstrous unconcern for the well-being of his slaves (his practice being to exploit them to the utmost, calculating that it would lead the slaves to death, and to new expense from buying slaves, after a few years and inscribing this computation as a mere data in his books) with the words: “This is a free country.

You may find the same kind of situation elsewhere. I once scorned the Jesuits of Paraguay because they made their wooden statues ‘speak’ to the Indians through clever contrivances, but it makes no doubt in my mind that their Socialist form of government with Indians was much more humanitarian than the lay encomiendas of the time. Yet the encomenderos defended their prerogatives as the heritage of communal liberties, while the Jesuits were, before the king turned against them, the arm of central monarchy. For a long time, in the Middle Ages, government authority and coercion were grounded by theologians on the original sin and the resulting wicked nature of man.


Contra EP (Evolutionary Psychology)


Several studies seeking to verify Devendra Singh’s result on a universal preference for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of .7 could not confirm it. One was carried out in Peru and another in Tanzania among hunter-gatherers, whom EP claim are behavioral copies of our Pleistocene ancestors (although behavior of different groups of contemporary hunter-gatherers can vary greatly on many essential counts).


In Adapting Minds (2006), David Buller shows convincingly that most of the main EP studies are based on sloppy reading of the data. For instance, Daly and Wilson (The Truth about Cinderella, 1998) amalgamate physical and sexual abuse (!), yet obviously sexual abuse by a stepfather is no confirmation whatever of their view that stepparents tend to be hostile to stepchildren because the latter are only an evolutionary cost to them. Reading the data attentively in fact disproves their view. Buller presents the alternative hypothesis that marriage offers mating opportunities rather than paternity certainty; in such a case evolution would not have selected an averse feeling toward stepchildren, which Daly & Wilson’s data do not even show. Buller also says social workers have a bias against stepparents when they fill child death certificates. So the data D&W examined, mostly from social services, in fact is biased against stepparents, and even then these data do not show the overrepresentation of abusive stepparents D&W claim to have found. Most likely, now, their work has reinforced, if possible, the social workers’ bias, and I have done the same here on my blog, as I followed on D&W’s steps, taking their conclusions with no grain of salt.

I might as well let Buller talk.

On anecdotal evidence from infanticide among mammals:

the discussion of infanticide-as-adaptation turns to be nothing but a red herring in the end.Daly and Wilson state the record straight‘Human beings are not like langurs or lions,’ they inform us. ‘We know that sexually selected infanticide is not a human adaptation because men, unlike male langurs and lions, do not routinely, efficiently dispose of their predecessors’ young. … Child abuse must therefore be considered a non-adaptive or maladaptive byproduct of the evolved psyche’s functional organization, rather than an adaptation in its own right. … All told, we see little reason to imagine that the average reproductive benefits of killing stepchildren would ever have outweighed the average costs enough to select for specifically infanticidal inclinations.’” (p.411)

On mating as paternity opportunity:

if a male can secure paternity opportunities from a female by providing care to her children, even if those children are the offspring of another male, the male enhances his chances of having children of his own and thereby transmitting his genes to future generations. So, another male’s child can make a contribution to a male’s fitness via the opportunities for paternity provided by that child’s mother in exchange for parental care provided to the child. The possibility of such fitness payoffs, however, means that we should not expect male psychology to be so unconditionally averse to investing in unrelated children.” (p.390) (Paternal care is primarily a mating effort and second a parenting effort: p.393)


One of Satoshi Kanazawa’s main claims, and all the other EPs (hippies?) with him, is that high-status men have more sex partners than low-status men. Yet Kinsey has shown the exact opposite in his famous, pioneering surveys. Something happened in the mean time?

In fact, all this BS about high-status males being like gorillas males in gorilla harems is an atrocious regression of Western scholarship. A few decades ago, Darwinians used to talk of the “fertility of the unfit” (that’s the title of a book). There’s a Darwinian contradiction in terms in such a phrase (fertility, of course, means high fertility here), wich a Darwinian could not fail to see and yet they (eugenicists) fully endorsed the paradox. They saw something to which EP boys, with their gorilla model, are blind. What they saw, and what solves the contradiction, is homogamy. Call it unfitness homogamy, if you like.

The EP view of “powerful and famous” males is based on primatology and misleading.

1/ From the longitudinal Stanford Marshmallow experiment, we know that children high on self-restraint have high status later in life. How does it square with having more sex partners than people low on self-restraint?

2/ Polygamy tends to be in the form of serial marriage (powerful and famous men tend to have as a matter of fact several spouses serially, but the number of their affairs is gossip and, as a matter of fact again, unknown). (A view held, among others, by Robert Wright.)

3/ Traditional types of philanderers now make the news as rapists, à la Harvey Weinstein.

4/ Even the highest rates of cuckoldry known (30% in some working-class compounds –number of children whose biological father is another man unbeknownst to the man at home) do not support the view that high-status males have greater access to females. In fact, all these 30% “bastards” may have been sired by working-class neighbors for all we know. Also, Buller relevantly points that in countries where dowry exists the fact that wealthy men have more wives hardly supports the idea that this is a female preference.


The Fertility of the Unfit, 1903, by Dr. William Chapple (New Zealand)

First thing to take into account is the unprecedented fact of demographic transition. Unknown in nature, human populations have started declining as goods became more widely available (whereas in nature populations decline due to adverse environmental factors). This is seen as a confirmation of the moral restraint check on fertility posited by Malthus beside the two “natural” checks, vice and misery. Quotes:

A rapid and continuous decline in the birth-rate of Northern and Western Europe, in contravention of all known biological and economic laws, has filled demographists with amazement.

Whereas: “The tendency in the races of history has been to over-population, or to population beyond the food supply

The very qualities, therefore, that make the social unit a law-abiding and useful citizen, who could and should raise the best progeny for the State, also enable him to limit his family, or escape the responsibility of family life altogether; while, on the other hand, the very qualities which make a man a social burden, a criminal, a pauper, or a drunkard –improvidence and defective inhibition– ensure that his fertility will be unrestrained, except by the checks of biological law.

If moral restraint with the consequent limitations of families is the peculiar characteristic of the best people in the state, and the absence of this characteristic expressing itself in normal fertility is peculiar to the worst people of the state, the future of the race may be divined

Vice and misery are more active checks amongst the very poor, and abortion is practised to a very considerable extent, but the appalling fact remains, that the birth-rate of the unfit goes on undisturbed, while the introduction of higher checks amongst the normal classes has led to a marked decline.

&, as another way of phrasing the above: “The defectives are more fertile than any other classes because of the very defect that makes them a danger to society. The defective restraint that allows them to commit offences against person and property, also allows their provocative impulse unrestrained activity.

Please note that the phenomenon, also described as “rise of the Criminal,” predates mass immigration.

Chapple also alludes to homogamy among the unfit “which their circumstances necessitate.

Last but not least, Chapple discusses mechanical contraceptives and considers that the least invasive technique is tubo-ligature, far preferable than vasectomy, as the latter “unsexes” males, leading to atrophy of the testes and impotence after some years. Ironically, today it is vasectomy that is more widespread (1 Englishman out of 5 is vasectomized, mark you). I have no doubt these vasectomies are practised on law-abiding citizens, according to their own will, as a moral restraint check on their fertility.

A consequence of demographic transition may be that marriage as paternity opportunity is now weak and that abuse of stepchildren has increased as a result (not as evolutionary adaptation)! Stepparent violence, if it’d be the result of demographic transition (stepparenting two kids from another bed entails a significant probability that the stepfather will have no kid of his own in a society characterized by the demographic transition, whereas it would have been no obstacle to siring a lot of children in the past), would be neither the result of evolutionary ADAPTATION nor, as in Daly & Wilson, a BYPRODUCT of evolution, a so-called “spandrel.”

Kant et Schopenhauer : une bibliographie fasciste

Toute bibliographie sur Kant a ses nationaux-socialistes : Alfred Baeumler, Gottfried Martin, Martin Heidegger (le moins connu d’entre eux)… (Pensées XLIII) (Heidegger est le philosophe des trois cités le plus connu mais le nazi le moins connu des trois, si vous voyez ce que je veux dire.)

La présente bibliographie ne saurait en aucun cas prétendre à l’exhaustivité, et ce pour plusieurs raisons.

Tout d’abord, la pensée de Kant et celle de Schopenhauer sont discutées dans toutes sortes d’ouvrages, y compris de fiction, par exemple Les Déracinés de Maurice Barrès, avec son personnage de professeur kantien entouré de disciples, ou encore Martin Eden de Jack London, où le personnage éponyme rejette la « métaphysique médiévale » de Kant pour sa formation intellectuelle. Le champ d’une bibliographie qui entendrait inclure ces œuvres de fiction est immense. Dans le cas de Schopenhauer, cette exclusion est certes regrettable dans la mesure où ce philosophe reste relativement mal aimé au sein des facultés de philosophie (notamment en France), alors qu’il a exercé une influence majeure sur des écrivains de renom, de Thomas Mann à Romain Rolland.

Ensuite, la pensée de l’un et l’autre est également discutée à titre secondaire ou accessoire dans de très nombreux ouvrages universitaires, et ce dans toutes sortes de disciplines au-delà de la philosophie. Inclure toutes ces œuvres, si c’était possible, donnerait là encore à cette bibliographie une dimension exorbitante.

La présente bibliographie se concentre donc sur les ouvrages spécifiquement consacrés à l’un ou l’autre de ces philosophes, ou à un aspect particulier de leur pensée respective. Ma recherche a porté sur les ouvrages publiés ; la recherche d’articles de journaux universitaires n’a pas été approfondie (ce qui signifie que la plus grande partie de la production universitaire est elle aussi laissée de côté).

En ce qui concerne les auteurs de nationalité autre qu’allemande, j’ai restreint le critère de recherche aux personnes de qui j’ai trouvé la trace d’un engagement « fasciste ». Pour les Italiens, par exemple, je n’ai pas retenu les œuvres même publiées pendant la période fasciste si leurs auteurs ne présentent pas un tel engagement selon les éléments biographiques dont je dispose, et ce même s’ils occupaient une chaire universitaire dans l’État totalitaire fasciste, ce qui indique tout de même a priori une compatibilité avec les principes idéologiques de cet État mais peut indiquer aussi une conformité de façade ou bien encore une certaine tolérance de ce même État fasciste quant au profil idéologique des occupants de positions éminentes.

Les titres des ouvrages parus sous le Troisième Reich sont soulignés. Les autres ouvrages ont été publiés avant ou après par des auteurs dont l’engagement fasciste est connu.



ACKERMANN Otto, Kant im Urteil Nietzsches, Tübingen 1939 (K. vu par Nietzsche)

BAEUMLER Alfred, Das Problem der Allgemeingültigkeit in Kants Ästhetik, 1914 (Le problème de l’universalité dans l’esthétique de K.) ; Das Irrationalitätsproblem in der Ästhetik und Logik des 18. Jahrhunderts bis zur Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1923 (Le problème de l’irrationnalité dans l’esthétique et la logique du 18e siècle jusqu’à la Critique de la faculté de juger) ; Kants Kritik der Urteilskraft. Ihre Geschichte und Systematik, 1923 (La Critique de la faculté de juger de K. : son histoire et son système)

Nsdap. Membre fondateur en 1930 du Kampfbund für deutsche Kultur (Alfred Rosenberg). Responsable du département des sciences dans l’Amt Rosenberg (« Bureau Rosenberg ») organe directeur de la politique culturelle et éducative du Nsdap.

BAUMGARTEN Eduard, article Kants Lehre vom Wert der Person, Blätter für Deutsche Philosophie, volume 15, 1941/42 (La théorie de la valeur de la personne chez K.)

Nsdap, SA.

BOHATEC Josef, Die Religionsphilosophie Kants in der Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft, Hambourg 1938 (La philosophie de la religion chez K. dans La Religion dans les limites de la simple raison)

BORCH Rudolf, Schopenhauer. Sein Leben in Selbstzeugnissen, Briefen und Berichten, 1941 (S. : sa vie d’après son témoignage, lettres et récits)

BORRIES Kurt, Kant als Politiker. Zur Staats- und Gesellschaftslehre des Kritizismus, 1928 (K. homme politique : la théorie de l’État et de la société dans le criticisme kantien)

Nsdap, SA.

BROCKDORFF Cay v., Die Differenz zwischen Schopenhauer und den Nachkantianern, 1919 (La différence entre S. et les post-kantiens) ; Schopenhauer, Stuttgart 1941

Nsdap. Membre de la Kant-Gesellschaft.

CHAMBERLAIN Houston Stewart, Immanuel Kant. Die Persönlichkeit als Einführung in das Werk, 1905 (K. : la personnalité en guise d’introduction à l’œuvre)

CRAMER Wolfgang, Das Problem der reinen Anschauung. Eine erkenntnistheoretische Untersuchung der Prinzipien der Mathematik, Tübingen 1937 (Le problème de l’intuition pure : examen des principes des mathématiques du point de vue de la théorie de la connaissance)


CYSARZ Herbert, Schopenhauer und die Geisteswissenschaft, 1925 (S. et les sciences humaines)


DEL-NEGRO Walter, Hans Vaihingers philosophisches Werk mit besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Kantforschung, Kantstudien 42, 1937 (L’œuvre philosophique d’Hans Vaihinger et en particulier ses travaux sur K.)

DULCKEIT Gerhard, Naturrecht und positives Recht bei Kant, 1932 (Droit naturel et droit positif chez K.)

Juriste et philosophe du droit. Pas d’appartenance politique mais proche idéologiquement du Nsdap, reconnu en tant que tel par les autorités, notamment en raison de son opposition à la distinction héritée du droit romain entre droit privé et droit public (cf. Wkpd Deutsch).

EBBINGHAUS Julius, Kants Lehre vom ewigen Frieden und die Kriegsschuldfrage, 1929 (La théorie kantienne de la paix perpétuelle et la question de la responsabilité de la guerre [Première Guerre mondiale]) ; Die Formeln des kategorischen Imperativs und die Ableitung inhaltlich bestimmter Pflichten, 1960 (Les formules de l’impératif catégorique et la déduction d’obligations déterminées)

Membre du Deutschnationale Volkspartei (DNVP) qui fit alliance avec le Nsdap pendant la République de Weimar.

EHRENSTEIN Walter, Die Reichsfeier zum 150. Geburtstag Arthur Schopenhauers in Danzig, Jahrbuch der Schopenhauer-Gesellschaft 26, 1939 (Commémoration du 150e anniversaire de la naissance d’A.S.) ; article Schopenhauer als Psychologe, 1938 (S. comme psychologue)


EMGE Carl August, Das Eherecht Immanuel Kants, 1924 (Le droit matrimonial selon K.) ; Gedächtnisschrift für Arthur Schopenhauer zur 150. Wiederkehr seines Geburtstages, Berlin 1938 (In memoriam A.S. pour le 150e anniversaire de sa naissance) éd. avec Otto von Schweinichen ; Kreise um Schopenhauer, 1962 (Cercles autour de S.)

Nsdap. Vice-président du comité pour la philosophie du droit de l’Académie allemande du droit (Hans Frank). Président du comité scientifique de la Nietzsche-Archiv.

GADAMER Hans-Georg, Immanuel Kant, 1960

Signataire de la profession de foi des professeurs allemands à Adolf Hitler, novembre 1933. Membre du Nationalsozialistischer Lehrerbund (NSLB) (Ligue NS des enseignants).

GASSE Irene, Staat und Recht bei Schopenhauer, 1938 (État et droit chez S.)

GROENER Maria, Wie ist die Darstellung von Schopenhauers Leben, Charakter und Lehre durch Kuno Fischer im neunten Bande seiner Geschichte der neueren Philosophie zu beurteilen? 1918 (Quel jugement convient-il de porter sur la présentation de la vie, du caractère et de l’œuvre de S. dans l’histoire de la philosophie moderne en 9 volumes de Kuno Fischer ?) ; Schopenhauer und die Juden, 1920 et 1943 (S. et les juifs) ; Hominibus bonae voluntatis: das Buch vom Weibe im Lichte Schopenhauers, 1923 (Aux hommes de bonne volonté : le « Livre de la femme » à la lumière de S.) ; Schopenhauer der Künstler, 1927 (S. artiste)

Membre fondateur de la Neue Deutsche Schopenhauer-Gesellschaft, une organisation clairement völkisch (nationaliste), en 1920.

HAERING Theodor, Über den Duisburg’schen Kantnachlaß und Kants Kritizismus um 1775, 1910 Diss. (Les manuscrits de Duisburg et le criticisme de K. vers 1775)


HÄRTLE Heinrich, Kant und der europäische Geist, 1974 (K. et l’esprit européen)

Nsdap, SA. Directeur pour les sciences humaines et la philosophie dans le Bureau Rosenberg.

HARTMANN Hans, Schopenhauer, ca 1960

Docteur en théologie. Nsdap.

HEIDEGGER Martin, Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik, 1929 (K. et le problème de la métaphysique, traduit en français)


HEIMSOETH Heinz, Atom, Seele, Monade. Historische Ursprünge und Hintergründe von Kants Antinomie der Teilung, 1960 (Atome, âme, monade : les origines et l’arrière-plan historiques de l’antinomie kantienne de la divisibilité) ; Studien zur Philosophie Immanuel Kants, 1961 (Études sur la philosophie d’E.K.) ; Transzendentale Dialektik. Ein Kommentar zu Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 4 vol., 1966-71 (Dialectique transcendantale : commentaire de la Critique de la raison pure)

Nsdap, NSLB.

HENNEMANN Gerhard, article Schon Kant kannte die Juden, 1938 (K. connaissait déjà les juifs)

HEYSE Hans, Einleitung in die Kategorienlehre, 1921 Diss. (Introduction à la théorie des catégories) ; Der Begriff der Ganzheit und die Kantische Philosophie. Ideen zu einer regionalen Logik und Kategorienlehre, 1927 (Le concept de totalité et la philosophie kantienne : idées pour une logique et une théorie des catégories régionales)

Nsdap. Vice-président de la Kant-Gesellschaft 1935-37.

HILDEBRANDT Kurt, Kant und Leibniz. Kritizismus und Metaphysik, 1955 (K. et Leibniz : criticisme et métaphysique)


HOFFMANN Richard Adolf, Kant und Swedenborg, 1909

Docteur en théologie. Nsdap. Membre de l’Institut für Erforschung und Beseitigung des jüdischen Einflusses auf das deutsche kirchliche Leben (Institut pour l’étude et l’élimination de l’influence juive dans la vie de l’Église allemande [protestante]).

HÜBSCHER Arthur, Gespräche (Schopenhauer), 1933 (Propos de S.) ; Schopenhauer-Jahrbuch, seit 1937 (Almanach annuel de S., à partir de 1937) ; Der junge Schopenhauer, 1938 (Le jeune S.) ; Arthur Schopenhauer, 1938 ; Leben mit Schopenhauer, 1966 (Une vie avec S.)

Président de la Schopenhauer-Gesellschaft de 1936 à 1982.

KNITTERMEYER Hinrich, Immanuel Kant. Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die kritische Philosophie, Bremen 1939 (E.K. : leçons d’introduction à la philosophie critique)


KRÜGER Gerhard, Kants Lehre von der Sinnesaffektion, 1925 Diss. (La théorie kantienne de l’affection des sens) ; Philosophie und Moral in der Kantischen Philosophie, 1931 (Philosophie et morale dans la philosophie kantienne)

Signataire de la Profession de foi des professeurs allemands à Adolf Hitler.

LEHMANN Gerhard, Geschichte der nachkantischen Philosophie. Berliner Kritizismus und kritisches Motiv in den philosophischen Systemen des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, 1931 (Histoire de la philosophie post-kantienne : le criticisme berlinois et le thème critique dans les systèmes philosophiques des 19e et 20e siècles) ; Beiträge zur Geschichte und Interpretation der Philosophie Kants, 1969 (Contributions à l’histoire et à l’interprétation de la philosophie de K.) ; Kants Tugenden. Neue Beiträge zur Geschichte und Interpretation der Philosophie Kants, 1980 (Vertus de K. : nouvelles contributions à l’histoire et à l’interprétation de la philosophie kantienne)

Bureau Rosenberg.

LEIDER Kurt, article Kant als Vater der Romantik, 1944 (K. père du romantisme) ; Arthur Schopenhauer, 1954

Collaborateur de l’Ostpreußische Parteiblatt der Nsdap.

LIEBRUCKS Bruno, Probleme der Subjekt-Objekt-Relation [bei Kant], Königsberg 1934 (mit dem Kant-Preis ausgezeichnet) (Les problèmes de la relation sujet-objet ; un essai distingué par le Prix Kant)

Nsdap, SA.

LIPS Peter, Schopenhauer und die Physiognomik, Hambourg 1941 (S. et la physiognomonie)

MARTIN Gottfried, Arithmetik und Kombinatorik bei Kant, Freiburg 1934 Diss. (Arithmétique et analyse combinatoire chez K.) ; Immanuel Kant. Ontologie und Wissenschaftstheorie, 1951 (E.K. : Ontologie et philosophie des sciences) ; Sachindex zu Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1967 (Index thématique de la Critique de la raison pure)


MENZER Paul, Natur und Geschichte im Weltbild Kants, 1924 (Nature et histoire dans la vision du monde kantienne) ; Kants Persönlichkeit, 1924 (La personnalité de K.) ; Eine Vorlesung Kants über Ethik, 1924 (Une leçon de K. sur l’éthique) ; Kants Ästhetik in ihrer Entwicklung, 1952 (L’esthétique de K. dans son développement)

Président de la Kant-Gesellschaft, 1933-38. Treudienst-Ehrenzeichen in Gold, 1939.

MEYER-ABICH Adolf, Über Liebmanns Erkenntnislehre und ihr Verhältnis zur Kantischen Philosophie, 1916 (De la théorie de la connaissance de Liebmann dans sa relation à la philosophie kantienne)

Signataire de la Profession de foi des professeurs allemands à Adolf Hitler.

MITTASCH Alwin, Schopenhauer und die Chemie, Heidelberg 1939 (S. et la chimie)


MOLLOWITZ Gerhard, Kants Platoauffassung, Kant-Studien 40, 1935 (L’interprétation de Platon par Kant)


NOACK Hermann, Introduction à La Religion dans les limites de la simple raison, 1961

SA. Signataire de la profession de foi des professeurs allemands à Adolf Hitler.

PFEIFFER Konrad, Zum höchsten Dasein. Goethes Faust im Lichte der Schopenhauerschen Philosophie, Berlin-Leipzig, 1938 (Pour l’existence la plus haute : Le Faust de Goethe à la lumière de la philosophie de S.) ; Von Mozarts göttlichem Genius. Eine Kunstbetrachtung auf der Grundlage der Schopenhauerschen Philosophie, Berlin 1941 (Du génie divin de Mozart : une étude d’histoire de l’art d’après les principes de la philosophie schopenhauerienne)

Membre de la Schopenhauer-Gesellschaft.

RENSCH Bernhard, article Kants Vorstellungen über den menschlichen Geist, Philosophia Naturalis 19, 1982 (Les représentations de l’esprit humain chez K.)

Biologiste. Membre de plusieurs organisations liées au Nsdap, dont le NSLB.

RIEFFERT Johann Baptist, Die Lehre von der empirischen Anschauung bei Schopenhauer und ihre historischen Voraussetzungen, 1910 Diss. (La théorie de l’intuition empirique chez S. et ses conditions historiques)

Nsdap (exclu pour avoir caché son appartenance au SPD, parti social-démocrate), Kampfbund, SA.

RIPKE-KÜHN Lenore, Kant contra Einstein, 1920


SCHILLING Kurt, Kant. Persönlichkeit und Werk, Münich 1942 (K. : personnalité et œuvre) ; Geschichte der Philosophie: Von der Renaissance bis Kant, 1954 (Histoire de la philosophie de la Renaissance jusqu’à Kant)


SCHLAF Johannes, Zur Aprioritätenlehre Kants, 1934 (La théorie de l’apriorité chez K.)

Écrivain. Signataire du Serment de fidélité à Adolf Hitler (88 écrivains et poètes), octobre 1933.

SCHMALENBACH Hermann, Kant und die Philosophie der Gegenwart, 1924 (K. et la philosophie contemporaine) ; Die Kantische Philosophie und die Religion, 1926 (La philosophie kantienne et la religion) ; Kants Religion, 1929 (La religion de K.)

George-Kreis (cercle d’idées conservatrices-révolutionnaires autour du poète Stefan George).

SCHMIDT Raymund, Schopenhauer-Brevier, Leipzig 1938 (Bréviaire de S.) ; article Schopenhauer und die Juden, 1938 (S. et les juifs)

SCHWEINICHEN Otto v., Gedächtnisschrift für Arthur Schopenhauer zur 150. Wiederkehr seines Geburtstages, 1939 éd. avec Carl August Emge [voir Emge]

Nsdap, SA.

SWOBODA Ernst, Das allgemeine bürgerliche Gesetzbuch im Lichte der Lehren Kants, 1926 (Le code civil à la lumière de la pensée de K.)

Nsdap, SA.

TANZMANN Bruno, Die Rettung von Schopenhauers Philosophie für die völkische Erziehung, 1919 (Le sauvetage de la philosophie de S. pour une éducation völkisch [nationaliste])

Fondateur Hakenkreuz-Verlag, völkisch.

TÖPFER Hellmuth, Deutung und Wertung der Kunst bei Schopenhauer und Nietzsche, Leipzig 1933 Diss. (Interprétation et évaluation de l’art chez S. et chez Nietzsche)

WEBER Johann Emil, Wie lange noch? Programmschrift zur Neuordnung der Schopenhauer-Gesellschaft, 1920 (Combien de temps encore ? Programme pour la réorganisation de la Société Schopenhauer)

Membre fondateur de la Neue Deutsche Schopenhauer-Gesellschaft, völkisch.

WUNDT Max, Kant als Metaphysiker. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der deutschen Philosophie im 18. Jahrhundert, 1924 (K. métaphysicien : contribution à l’histoire de la philosophie allemande du 18e siècle) ; article Kant und der deutsche Geist, Archiv für die gesammte Psychologie, 1936 (K. et l’esprit allemand)

Membre du Kampfund (Rosenberg), collaborateur du journal NS Völkischer Beobachter.


Autres nationalités

BRĂILEANU Traian, traduction en roumain de la Critique de la raison pure, en 1930, de la Critique de la faculté de juger, en 1940, et de l’Idée d’une histoire universelle, en 1943

Roumain. Philosophe et sociologue. Membre dirigeant de la Garde de fer. Ministre de l’éducation nationale dans le gouvernement collaborationniste, 1940-41.

DE LORENZO Giuseppe, Leopardi e Schopenhauer, 1923

Italien. Orientaliste, géographe (vulcanologie) et philosophe. « Comparait Mussolini au Bouddha. »

GĂVĂNESCU Ion, Dela Kant la Hitler: spre pacea lumii, 1942 (De K. à Hitler : vers la paix universelle)

Roumain. Membre dirigeant de la Garde de fer.

GENTILE Giovanni, traducteur de la Critique de la raison pure, en 1909-10, avec Giuseppe Lombardo Radice

Italien. Le « philosophe du fascisme » selon ses propres termes.

IONESCU Nae, une édition de la Critique de la raison pratique, 1934

Roumain. Philosophe. Opposant conservateur à la Garde de fer, puis la soutient.

LAMANNA Eustachio Paolo, Il fondamento morale della politica secondo Kant, 1916 (Le fondement moral de la politique selon K.) ; Kant. Un profilo, 1925 (K. : un portrait)

Italien. Philosophe. Signe le Manifeste des intellectuels antifascistes de Benedetto Croce en 1925 (en réponse au Manifeste des intellectuels fascistes de Giovanni Gentile), avant de se rallier au fascisme.

LILJEQVIST Efraim, Der schwedische Persönlichkeitsidealismus und Kant, Vienne 1934 (L’idéalisme de la personnalité suédois et K.)

Suédois. Philosophe. Président du Riksföreningen Sverige-Tyskland, l’Association pour l’amitié entre la Suède et l’Allemagne, pro-nazie, 1939-41.

MAKANEC Julije, article Kant, Prosvjetni život II, 1943

Croate. Philosophe. Ministre de l’éducation nationale dans l’État croate Oustacha, fasciste.

NOICA Constantin, Concepte deschise în istoria filozofiei la Descartes, Leibniz și Kant, 1936 (Concepts clairs d’histoire de la philosophie chez Descartes, Leibniz et Kant) ; Două introduceri și o trecere spre idealism. Cu traducerea primei introduceri kantiene a Criticei Judecării, 1943 (Deux introductions et un passage vers l’idéalisme, avec la traduction de la première introduction kantienne à la Critique de la faculté de juger)

Roumain. Membre de la Garde de fer. Collaborateur de l’Institut germano-roumain de Berlin, 1940-44.

PAPINI Giovanni, Il crepuscolo dei filosofi. Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Comte, Spencer, Nietzsche, 1906 (Le crépuscule des philosophes) ; L’importanza di Schopenhauer, 1913 (L’importance de S.)

Italien. Proche du fascisme.

PETROVICI Ion, Kant und das rumänische Denken, 1927 (K. et la pensée roumaine) ; Viața și opera lui Kant. 12 lecții universitare, 1936 (Vie et œuvre de Kant : 12 leçons universitaires) ; Schopenhauer, 1937 [en roumain] ; Zum 150. Geburtstage Schopenhauer, Heidelberg 1939 [Pour le 150e anniversaire de la naissance de S.)

Roumain. Ministre de l’éducation nationale dans le gouvernement antisémite d’Octavian Goga, 1937-38, puis ministre de la culture dans le gouvernement collaborationniste d’Antonescu, 1941-44.

REALE Miguel, A doutrina de Kant no Brasil, 1949 (La doctrine de K. au Brésil)

Brésilien. Un des dirigeants du mouvement intégraliste (mouvement fasciste brésilien). Membre fondateur de l’Académie brésilienne de philosophie en 1989.

VLEESCHAUWER Herman Jan de, La déduction transcendantale dans l’œuvre de Kant, 3 volumes, Antwerp-Paris 1934, 1936, 1937 ; L’évolution de la pensée kantienne. L’histoire d’une doctrine, Paris 1939

Belge. Membre du Vlaams Nationaal Verbond (VNB) fasciste. Directeur général à l’enseignement supérieur pendant l’occupation de la Belgique. Condamné à mort après la guerre pour collaboration, s’enfuit en Afrique du Sud, où il enseigne la philosophie, à l’Université de Pretoria, de 1955 à 1966.