Category: Malais/B.Melayu-B.Indonesia

Glossaire de l’occulte malais II / Logat Ghaib Melayu

Le présent travail complète le premier Glossaire de l’occulte malais publié sur ce site (voir ici). Alors que celui-ci s’intéresse aux seules apparitions et créatures surnaturelles enregistrées dans la langue malaise, le présent travail aborde un plus large éventail de phénomènes. Il n’est nullement exhaustif et a vocation à être complété.

Chaque entrée comporte en premier lieu une définition en malais, tirée du Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI), dictionnaire indonésien, ou du Kamus Bahasa Melayu (KBM), dictionnaire malaisien, ou bien des deux. Quand les deux définitions ont été retenues, parce qu’elles se complètent plutôt qu’elles ne se répètent, elles sont séparées par le signe /. Lorsque j’ai pu trouver l’équivalent en écriture jawi, dans le Daftar Rumi-Jawi, je l’ai ajouté entre parenthèses à côté de chaque entrée. Les définitions sont suivies de leurs traductions en français, auxquelles j’ajoute, entre crochets [], des commentaires personnels ou des précisions. Certaines entrées sont placées ensemble, sans considération de l’ordre alphabétique, quand elles renvoient à un même phénomène ou à des réalités identiques ou semblables.

Les abréviations utilisées sont les suivantes : Ar arabe, Cn chinois, Jk Jakarta, Jw Java, Mk Minangkabau.

…………….LOGAT GHAIB MELAYU

Alawar. Ar anak setan yang tugasnya menyebabkan zina dan perbuatan mesum sehingga manusia tidak malu melakukannya.

Alawar. genre de diable dont la fonction est de provoquer l’adultère et les actes ignobles jusqu’à ce que l’homme n’éprouve plus aucune honte de sa conduite.

Asmaragama. ilmu atau seni bersanggama. Ajigineng. Jw pengetahuan mengenai teknik bersanggama.

Asmaragama. la science ou l’art de l’accouplement sexuel. Ajigineng. le savoir relatif à la technique de l’accouplement. [Le terme asmaragama est un composé de deux mots issus du sanskrit, asmara (jawi اسمارا, sanskrit स्मर smara), l’amour et en particulier, en sanskrit, l’amour sexuel, et agama (اݢام, आगम), qui veut dire religion en malais, mais désigne en sanskrit une doctrine ou un précepte traditionnel, ou encore un recueil de ces doctrines, et peut servir à désigner les Védas. Le terme asmaragama est donc un précepte traditionnel, ou un recueil de préceptes, concernant l’amour sexuel, sur le modèle du Kamasutra indien. Le terme ajigineng peut également s’écrire aji gineng, ou ajian gineng, car il s’agit également d’un composé, avec le mot aji, qui désigne un charme ou une incantation magique, en d’autres termes un savoir occulte.]

Badi (بادي). pengaruh buruk (dari orang mati, binatang yang terbunuh, pohon keramat, dsb) 2 kelakuan yang luar biasa (mirip hewan dsb) yang diperoleh pada saat dilahirkan 3 zat yang menularkan penyakit.

Badi. influence mauvaise (d’une personne décédée, d’un animal qui a été abattu, d’un arbre surnaturel, etc.). 2 comportement anormal (par exemple, semblable à celui d’un animal) adopté par un individu depuis le moment où il a été mis au monde. 3 substance pathogène.

Baureksa, Bahureksa. Jw roh penjaga dan pelindung.

Baureksa. esprit gardien protecteur, génie tutélaire. [Provient du sanskrit : bahu (बहु) et raksa (राक्ष), grand démon, ou démon puissant.]

Bidadari (بيداداري). putri atau dewi dari kayangan. 2 perempuan yang elok. Haur (هور), Hauri (هوري). Ar bidadari = hauri bidadari. Haur uljanati. bidadari surga.

Bidadari. 1 femme ou déesse du paradis. 2 belle femme. [Le terme bidadari vient du sanskrit vidhyadhari (विद्याधरी), qui désigne certaines déités féminines du paradis d’Indra. Le terme haur, ou hauri, est le nom des vierges du paradis du Coran, les houris. L’expression haur uljanati n’est autre que l’arabe pour « houri du paradis » (حور الجنة). Dans les dictionnaires indonésiens et malaisiens, l’un de ces noms, sanskrit ou arabe, sert à définir l’autre.]

Bisa Kawi. kekuatan gaib (tulah dsb) yang menimpa orang karena melanggar adat dsb.

Bisa Kawi. pouvoir surnaturel (malédiction, etc.) frappant une personne à la suite d’une transgression de la coutume.

Bomoh (بوموه). tabib yang mengubati orang sakit dengan menggunakan ubat tradisional atau cara kampung dan jampi-jampi. = Balian (بليان)

Bomoh. guérisseur qui traite les malades avec des remèdes traditionnels ou, à la manière du passé, des formules magiques.

Brata. tindakan pengendalian diri: ada tiga brata yang mesti dilakukan berkaitan dengan Syiwaratri, yaitu tidak tidur selama 36 jam, berpuasa selama 24 jam, dan tafakur memusatkan pikiran pada Syiwa. Tapa Brata. bertarak; menahan hawa nafsu, berpantang, dsb.

Brata. pratique du contrôle de soi : trois formes de brata doivent être pratiquées en liaison avec le festival de Syiwaratri, à savoir veiller pendant trente-six heures, jeûner pendant vingt-quatre heures, et méditer en concentrant ses pensées sur le dieu Shiva (Syiwa). Tapa Brata. ascèse ; maîtrise des passions, refus de céder à la tentation de l’interdit, etc. [Du sanskrit vrata (व्रत), un acte de pieuse observance ou d’austérité, comme le fait de se nourrir seulement de lait ou d’une autre sorte d’aliment unique, mais aussi un vœu solennel, notamment de se consacrer à l’étude des Védas. La définition ici donnée de tapa brata ne rend pas le caractère superlatif de cette pratique, définie dans le dictionnaire indonésien-anglais d’Echols comme « the highest form of asceticism », à savoir le sanskrit tapovrata (तपोव्रात) – une multitude d’austérités –, combinaison de tapas (तपस्), ascétisme, et de vrata.]

Buluh Perindu. 1 alat bunyi-bunyian yang menghasilkan bunyi jika ditiup, terbuat dari bambu tipis. 2 buluh yang dapat menimbulkan bunyi sedih dan sayu jika tertiup angin.

Buluh Perindu. 1 instrument de musique à vent, en bambou mince. 2 bambou rendant un son triste et mélancolique quand le vent le fait bruisser. [Ces définitions n’évoquent pas un aspect magique de ce bambou, lequel est pourtant apparent dans son nom scientifique, Bambusa magica. Echols donne la définition suivante : « Mythical kind of bamboo used to make flutes that produce melodies irresistible to women. » Selon d’autres versions, si une personne garde un morceau de l’écorce de ce bambou dans la bouche, sa voix devient irrésistible.]

Candradimuka. kawah di kayangan (dalam pewayangan).

Candradimuka. nom d’un cratère du paradis (dans les légendes). [Plus exactement, dans le théâtre wayang reprenant les récits du Mahabharata. Candradimuka est le cratère du mont Jamurdipa, d’où, selon Echols, les enfants émergent adultes.]

Cenayang (چنايڠ). dukun (pawang) yang dapat berhubungan dengan makhluk halus. Prewangan. Jw penghubung dengan dunia roh. / bomoh yang boleh menghubungi semangat = Dukun prewangan.

Cenayang. sorcier capable d’entrer en contact avec les esprits, chaman. Prewangan. chaman capable d’entrer en contact avec les esprits.

Cenduai (چندواي). guna-guna (mantra) untuk memikat hati wanita. Minyak cenduai. minyak pengasih (guna-guna) untuk memikat hati wanita. Pelet (ڤليت). getah untuk menangkap burung. 2 minyak (dari ikan duyung) untuk memikat hati orang.

Cenduai. sortilège (incantation) pour rendre une femme amoureuse. Minyak cenduai. « huile ~ », philtre d’amour, pour rendre une femme amoureuse. Pelet. 1 résine, gomme servant à attraper les oiseaux. 2 huile (tirée du lamantin, autrement connu sous le nom de dugong, d’après le malais) pour rendre une personne amoureuse.

Cindaku (چينداکو), Cendaku (چنداکو). Mk orang yang boleh menjadi harimau jadi-jadian (utk « harimau jadi-jadian » di sini).

Cindaku. tigre-garou, personne capable de se transformer en tigre magique.

Combong (چومبوڠ). Jk pisau (sikin) yang berlubang pada bilahnya (dianggap bertuah).

Combong. couteau (poignard) à lame percée (considéré comme magique).

Cuca (چوچا). mantra (jampi) untuk menawar bisa, mengobati luka, mengebalkan tubuh, dsb.

Cuca. incantation (formule magique) pour neutraliser l’effet du poison, guérir les blessures, rendre le corps invulnérable, etc.

Dajal (دجال). Ar setan yang datang ke dunia apabila kiamat sudah dekat (berupa raksasa). / makhluk yang akan muncul untuk menyesatkan manusia sebelum terjadi kiamat, tetapi akhirnya dapat dibunuh oleh Nabi Isa a.s.

Dajal. diable qui doit apparaître dans le monde à l’approche du jour du jugement dernier (et ayant l’apparence d’un démon/rakshasa). / créature qui apparaîtra avant le jour du jugement dernier dans le but de tromper les hommes, mais qui sera finalement tuée par le Prophète Jésus. [C’est l’Antéchrist, dans le contexte islamique.]

Denah (دينه), Denah Jahat (دينه جاهت). hantu yang menyebabkan kaki menjadi bengkak.

Denah. fantôme qui provoque l’enflure des jambes.

Darusalam (IN), Darussalam (MA) (دارالسلام). Ar 1 alam kesejahteraan (akhirat) 2 alam atau negeri yang aman. Cf. Darul harab. negeri yang rakyatnya belum memeluk agama Islam, lawan Darussalam (harab = perang). 3 surga ketujuh.

Darusalam. 1 monde de la félicité (dans l’au-delà). 2 contrée ou pays en sûreté, par opposition au darul harab, les pays dont les peuples n’ont pas encore embrassé l’islam (harab = guerre). 3 le septième ciel.

Gelang Bajang. gelang dari benang hitam (dipakai di tangan) untuk penangkal bencana.

Gelang Bajang. bracelet de fil noir (porté au poignet), servant d’amulette.

Geliga (ݢليݢ), Guliga (ݢوليݢ). batu yang terdapat di tubuh binatang (ular, landak, dsb) yang mempunyai khasiat untuk menawarkan bisa dsb. = mestika hewan. Kemala (کمالا), Kumala (کومالا), Gemala. batu yang indah dan bercahaya (berasal dari binatang), banyak khasiatnya dan mengandung kesaktian: kemala hikmat (کمالا هکمت).

Geliga. pierre que l’on trouve dans le corps d’animaux (serpent, porc-épic, etc.) et qui possède entre autres des vertus curatives. Kemala. belle pierre brillante (que l’on trouve dans le corps d’animaux) aux multiples propriétés et dotée de pouvoirs magiques. [C’est ce qu’on appelle un bézoard, et ces pierres étaient réputés en Occident aussi avoir des pouvoirs surnaturels. La crapaudine, par exemple, était censée se trouver dans la tête du crapaud.]

Gendam. mantra atau guna-guna yang dapat membuat orang menjadi terpesona.

Gendam. formule magique d’envoûtement.

Halimunan (هليمونن). tidak kelihatan. Orang halimunan. orang halus (siluman, orang bunian) (di sini). Doa (Ilmu) halimunan. mantra atau ilmu yang dapat menjadikan badan tidak kelihatan.

Halimunan. invisible. Orang ~. esprit (siluman, orang bunian) (voir ici). Doa (prière) / Ilmu (science) ~. science de l’invisibilité.

Hantu Jerangkung. hantu orang mati.

Hantu Jerangkung. revenant [lit. « fantôme squelette », car il a l’apparence d’un squelette humain.]

Jelangkung, Jailangkung. Cn boneka (orang-orangan, yang dilengkapi alat tulis di tangan, digunakan untuk memanggil arwah, dan jika arwah itu telah masuk ke dalam boneka tersebut diadakan tanya jawab, jawaban sang arwah diberikan melalui tulisan tangan boneka itu).

Jelangkung. figurine de forme humaine ayant un crayon à la main, employée pour invoquer les esprits des morts ; quand un esprit est entré dans la poupée, et qu’on lui pose des questions, il est dit qu’il répond à ces questions en écrivant par le biais de la figurine.

Jinjang (جينجڠ). pemimpin atau ketua (golongan, hantu, dsb). 2 dukun yang menguasai hantu. 3 badan atau orang yg kemasukan setan. 4 orang yang menemani utusan raja.

Jinjang. 1 chef (d’un groupe, de fantômes, etc.) 2 sorcier ayant le pouvoir sur les fantômes. 3 corps ou personne possédée par un diable. 4 personne accompagnant un envoyé du prince.

Julung (جولوڠ). Jw (orang yang) mempunyai nasib yang buruk sejak lahir lagi (seperti akan dibunuh dll).

Julung. personne frappée du mauvais sort depuis sa naissance (et qui, par exemple, est destinée à mourir assassinée).

Kahin (کاهين). Ar 1 ahli (tukang) sihir. 2 ahli nujum. Nujum (نجوم). Ar 1 perbintangan untuk meramalkan (mengetahui) nasib orang. 2 bintang-bintang.

Kahin. 1 magicien. 2 astrologue. Nujum. 1 divination par les astres afin de connaître le destin d’une personne. 2 les étoiles. [De l’arabe kahin (كاهن), devin, oracle, prêtre, sacrificateur. Nujum est le pluriel arabe de najm (نجوم / نجم), corps céleste, étoile, planète.]

Karang (کارڠ). Ilmu karang (علمو کارڠ). ilmu kebal. Kebal (کبل). tidak mempan senjata; tidak dapat terlukai oleh senjata. Ilmu kebal. ilmu yang membuat seseorang itu tidak luka oleh senjata tajam dan tidak dapat ditembusi peluru. Kebal penimbul. kebal kerana telah dimasukkan raksa ke dalam badan (dengan dijampi). Ilmu penimbul (علمو ڤنيمبول). ilmu yang mengebalkan orang (dengan menggosokkan raksa pada badan). Kebal simpul. kebal kerana tidak pecah tembuni ketika dilahirkan.

Karang. Ilmu karang. la science de l’invulnérabilité. Kebal. invulnérable aux armes ; qui ne peut être blessé par une arme. Ilmu kebal. science qui permet de protéger celui qui la pratique des blessures par armes blanches ainsi que des projectiles. Kebal penimbul. (personne) invulnérable en raison du fait que du mercure a été introduit par magie dans son corps. Ilmu penimbul. science de l’invulnérabilité (par l’introduction magique de mercure dans le corps). Kebal simpul. invulnérable pour être né sans avoir déchiré le placenta. [Au sujet de cette dernière définition, la chose n’est pas sans rappeler une tradition comparable en Occident, celle des enfants « nés coiffés », c’est-à-dire avec la tête couverte par la poche de liquide amniotique, et qui étaient censés connaître un grand succès dans la vie. David Copperfield, le personnage éponyme du roman de Charles Dickens, naquit coiffé (born with a caul) et son « casque » fut vendu comme talisman.]

Kebaji (کباجي). Mk guna-guna yang membuat suami istri saling berbantah sehingga bercerai.

Kebaji. sortilège par lequel une femme et son époux sont conduits à se quereller jusqu’à la séparation.

Khamzab. Ar anak setan yang bertugas mengecaukan orang yang sedang melakukan salat.

Khamzab. genre de diable dont la fonction est de distraire les gens en train de prier.

Lampor. Jw makhluk halus yang berarak.

Lampor. fantôme marchant en procession.

Maweda. upacara keagamaan di Bali yang dilakukan oleh para pedanda, yang dengan mengucapkan mantra menyebabkan Syiwa turun ke dalam tubuhnya sehingga dewa itu dapat mengubah air menjadi air suci.

Maweda. cérémonie propre à la religion balinaise, au cours de laquelle le prêtre, par des invocations, fait descendre Shiva (Syiwa) dans son corps, de façon que le dieu puisse par son entremise transformer de l’eau en eau bénite. [La religion balinaise, Agama Hindu Bali, est l’hindouisme – un hindouisme autocéphale – et l’Indonésie est ainsi, avec l’Inde et le Népal, le seul pays à posséder une communauté hindouiste séculaire.]

Miswat. Ar setan yang tugasnya menyiarkan desas-desus, fitnah, kabar angin, dan pidato dusta sehingga masyarakat kacau dan berita bohong menjadi tolok ukur.

Miswat. genre de diable dont la fonction est de répandre les rumeurs, les calomnies, les faux bruits et les discours mensongers, afin que la société soit plongée dans la confusion et que le faux passe pour le vrai.

Pakpui, Pakpue. Cn 1 ramalan tentang nasib (peruntungan), terdapat dalam kelenteng 2 tukang ramal Cina.

Pakpui. 1 divination pratiquée dans les temples chinois. 2 devin chinois.

Pancasona (ڤنچاسونا). mantra yang menyebabkan seseorang yang telah mati dapat hidup kembali.

Pancasona. formule magique par laquelle une personne décédée est rappelée à la vie.

Pangkah (ڤڠکه). tanda silang atau coretan, msl pada dahi untuk penangkal roh jahat.

Pangkah. symbole en forme de croix ou de lignes, en particulier sur le front, et servant de talisman contre les esprits malfaisants.

Pawang (ڤاوڠ). orang yang mempunyai keahlian istimewa yang berkaitan dengan ilmu gaib, seperti dukun, mualim perahu, pemburu buaya, penjinak ular. Pawang buaya. orang yang pandai menangkap atau menjinakkan buaya. Pawang gajah. orang yang pandai menangkap atau menjinakkan gajah. Pawang hujan. orang yang pandai menolak hujan. Pawang lebah. orang yang dapat menjinakkan lebah dan kebal terhadap sengatannya; orang yang ahli tentang lebah; juru cari madu.

Pawang. personne douée de connaissances spéciales liées à un savoir occulte, à l’instar d’un chaman, d’un capitaine de navire, d’un dresseur de crocodiles, d’un charmeur de serpents. Pawang buaya. personne experte dans l’art d’attraper ou de dresser les crocodiles. Pawang gajah. personne experte dans l’art d’attraper ou de dresser les éléphants. Pawang hujan. personne capable de chasser la pluie. Pawang lebah. personne capable de domestiquer les abeilles et qui est immunisée contre leur piqûre ; personne experte en matière d’abeilles ; personne habile à trouver du miel.

Pelak (ڤلق), Pilak (ڤيلق). hantu jahat (dipakai juga untuk memaki).

Pelak. esprit malfaisant (est aussi utilisé comme terme d’insulte).

Pelintuh (ڤلينتوه), Pelintoh. guna-guna (mantra) untuk melemahkan (semangat) lawan.

Pelintuh. formule magique servant à affaiblir (l’esprit de) son adversaire.

Peruang (ڤرواڠ). mantra yang menyebabkan dapat tahan lama menyelam di dalam air (dengan menjadikan ruang udara di sekeliling badan): ilmu peruang. 2 siksaan atau hukuman dengan mengikatkan si terhukum pada tiang, kemudian kepalanya disiram dengan minyak babi yang mendidih hingga terhukum meninggal dunia.

Peruang. 1 formule magique permettant de rester longtemps sous l’eau (en créant une bulle d’air tout autour du corps). 2 [Dans un autre registre] châtiment par lequel le condamné est attaché à un poteau et sa tête aspergée de saindoux bouillant jusqu’à ce que mort s’ensuive.

Pestaka (ڤستاک). kitab primbon (yang berisi ramalan, mantra, dsb) 2 pengaruh baik atau buruk (yang ada pada suatu benda dsb): pestaka keris. Pustaka (ڤوستاک). kitab; buku 2 buku primbon.

Pestaka. 1 grimoire magique (comportant des recueils de prédictions, des formules magiques, etc.) 2 influence surnaturelle bonne ou mauvaise (attachée, par exemple, à un objet, comme un kriss). Pustaka. 1 livre. 2 grimoire magique. [Du sanskrit pustaka (पुस्तक), livre.]

Primbon (ڤريمبون). kitab yang berisikan ramalan (perhitungan hari baik, hari nahas, dsb); buku yang menghimpun berbagai pengetahuan kejawaan, berisi rumus ilmu gaib (rajah, mantra, doa, tafsir mimpi); sistem bilangan yang pelik untuk menghitung hari mujur untuk mengadakan selamatan, mendirikan rumah, memulai perjalanan dan mengurus segala macam kegiatan yang penting, baik bagi perorangan maupun masyarakat.

Primbon. recueil de prédictions (permettant notamment d’établir les jours fastes et néfastes) ; livre réunissant diverses connaissances occultes javanaises (diagrammes, prières, incantations, interprétation des rêves) ; système numérique compliqué permettant de calculer les jour propices pour faire des offrandes, construire une maison, entamer un voyage et arranger toutes sortes d’affaires importantes pour l’individu ou la société.

Pripih (ڤريڤيه). Jw sejenis azimat (tangkal).

Pripih. sorte de talisman javanais (de protection).

Pukau (ڤوکاو). tepung (dari biji kecubung dsb) yang dipakai untuk memabukkan atau menyebabkan orang tidur nyenyak (dipakai oleh pencuri). 2 jampi yang dapat membuat orang lupa atau tidak sedar akan keadaan yang sebenarnya. Sirep (سيرڤ). mantra untuk membuat orang tertidur.

Pukau. 1 poudre produite à partir de graines de datura (Datura fastuosa) et utilisée par les voleurs pour faire perdre à quelqu’un ses esprits ou le plonger dans un sommeil profond. 2 formule magique visant à faire perdre à quelqu’un la mémoire ou bien à altérer son état de conscience. Sirep. incantation visant à plonger une personne dans le sommeil.

Rajah (راجه). suratan (gambaran, tanda, dsb) yang dipakai sebagai azimat (untuk penolak penyakit dsb). 2 garis pada tapak tangan. 3 coreng-coreng (cacahan) pada tubuh yang dibuat dengan barang tajam; tato.

Rajah. 1 dessin (image, symbole) employé comme talisman (par exemple pour prévenir les maladies). 2 lignes de la main. 3 tatouage.

Raksasa (رقساس). makhluk yang menyerupai manusia, konon berbadan tinggi besar; gergasi (ݢرݢاسي); buta/bota (بوتا). a besar sekali (melebihi ukuran biasa). Laba-laba raksasa: tarantula.

Raksasa. 1 créature ayant forme humaine, mais de plus grande taille ; ogre (rakshasa). 2 adj de grande taille (dépassant la mesure ordinaire) : araignée rakshasa, mygale. [Du sanskrit raksasa (राक्षस), démon.]

Rejang (رجڠ). perhitungan baik buruk untuk tiap hari bulan, biasanya dilambangkan dengan binatang (seperti tanggal 1 dilambangkan dengan kuda, 2 hari bulan oleh kijang, 3 hari bulan oleh harimau, dll); perhitungan nujum. Candrasengkala, Candrasangkala. Jw rumusan tahun dengan kata-kata, yang setiap kata melambangkan angka, dibaca dari depan dan ditafsirkan dari belakang; kronogram Jawa yang memakai sistem perhitungan bulan.

Rejang. calcul des jours fastes et néfastes pour chaque jour du mois, recourant en général à un symbolisme animalier (le premier jour est symbolisé par le cheval, le deuxième par le muntjac de Java, Muntiakus muntjak, le troisième par le tigre, etc.) ; calcul astrologique. Candrasengkala. Mise de l’année en formules par des mots dont chacun symbolise un chiffre, qui se lisent dans le sens normal de la lecture et s’interprètent dans l’autre sens ; chronogramme javanais servant de système de calcul astrologique.

Sambang (سامبڠ). beberapa macam penyakit yang kononnya disebabkan oleh sesuatu kuasa ghaib.

Sambang. diverses sortes de maladies prétendument causées par des forces surnaturelles.

Santung (سانتوڠ), Sentung (سنتوڠ). Mk erat, rapat. Santung/Sentung Pelalai. guna-guna yang menyebabkan gadis tidak dapat menemukan jodoh atau tidak mau menika. Pelalai (ڤلالاي). jampi atau ubat untuk melalaikan atau untuk melekakan.

Santung Pelalai. sortilège par lequel une femme est empêchée de trouver l’âme sœur ou de se marier. Pelalai. formule magique ou substance rendant distrait ou bien complètement absorbé, passionné.

Semberani (سمبراني), Sembrani. Kuda semberani. kuda yang bersayap (dapat terbang). Beraksa (برقسا). kuda yang dapat terbang; kuda semberani (dalam cerita): kuda beraksa.

Semberani. Cheval ailé.

Sijundai (سيجونداي). Mk sihir untuk membuat orang menjadi gila (orang yang kena sihir itu beryanyi-nyanyi).

Sijundai. sortilège pour rendre une personne folle (la victime se met à chanter à tue-tête).

Suluk (سلوک). Ar jalan mencapai kesempurnaan batin (dengan mengasingkan diri, beramal ibadat dan berzikir): ahlul suluk, ahlulsuluk. Ilmu suluk. Ilmu tasawuf (تصوف).

Suluk. la voie de la perfection spirituelle (par la réclusion, la prière, la pratique religieuse, la litanie mystique) : ahlulsuluk, les gens suivant cette voie, les mystiques.

Susuk (سوسوق). jarum emas, intan, dsb yang dimasukkan ke dalam kulit, bibir, dahi, dsb disertai mantra agar tampak menjadi cantik, menarik, manis, dsb.

Susuk. aiguille d’or, de diamant ou d’une autre matière, introduite dans la peau, les lèvres, le front ou ailleurs, avec accompagnement de formules magiques, afin de rendre la femme plus belle et désirable.

Tapa Sungsang. bertapa di atas pohon dengan kaki di atas dan kepala di bawah untuk memperoleh tingkat spiritual tertentu.

Tapa Sungsang. forme d’ascèse par laquelle la personne se suspend à un arbre les pieds en haut la tête en bas, afin de parvenir à un certain degré spirituel.

Teluh. ilmu hitam untuk mencelakakan orang lain.

Teluh. magie noire visant à causer le malheur d’autrui.

Tenung (تنوڠ). kepandaian untuk mengetahui (meramalkan) sesuatu yang gaib (seperti meramalkan nasib, mencari orang hilang). 2 (= teluh) ilmu hitam untuk mencelakakan orang lain.

Tenung. 1 habileté dans les voies de la connaissance occulte (par exemple pour prédire le destin, retrouver les personnes perdues, etc.) 2 (= teluh) magie noire visant à causer le malheur d’autrui.

Tinggam (تيڠݢم). Mk guna-guna untuk membuat sakit (bengkak-bengkak dsb) dengan menusuk-nusukkan duri ekor ikan pari pada gambar orang.

Tinggam. pratique magique en vue de rendre autrui malade (enflures, etc.) au moyen d’une arête de raie piquée et repiquée dans une image de la personne visée.

Tuju (توجو). mantera (jampi, sihir dll) untuk membuat orang supaya sakit atau mati.

Tuju. pratique magique en vue de rendre une personne malade ou de la tuer.

Tulah (توله). kemalangan yang disebabkan oleh kutuk, karena perbuatan yang kurang baik terhadap orang tua (orang suci dsb), atau karena perbuatan melanggar larangan. = Kualat (کوالت), Walat

Tulah. malheur et malédiction que l’individu appelle sur lui à cause du manque de respect envers un ancien (un saint homme, etc.), ou bien de la transgression d’un interdit.

Wangsit. pesan (amanat) gaib.

Wangsit. message (ordre) surnaturel.

Wasitah (واسطه). Ar 1 wasit perempuan 2 perempuan yang dapat berhubungan dengan orang halus. 3 perantara (dalam perkawinan dsb).

Wasitah. 1 femme arbitre. 2 femme capable d’entrer en contact avec les esprits. 3 intermédiaire (par exemple pour un mariage).

    Masjid Kristal (Kuala Terengganu)

                 Masjid Kristal (Kuala Terengganu)

Octobre 2015

Menjadi Kawan

Generally speaking, people who are fond of pop-rock music do not pay much attention to what is made outside of America and/or their own countries, and people interested in “world music” do not pay much attention to musicians outside the Western world writing music inspired by Western pop-rock styles.

As a student in foreign languages, on the Internet I have come across much interesting material from abroad unknown by my fellow countrymen and fellow Westerners, although to my ears it proves equal to the indie music I used to listen to in my younger days and which received significant coverage.

I have chosen to present the following song on this blog, with my translation of the lyrics. (I know that one normally loses in feeling and imagination when one grasps the lyrics, and this is true even for the English-speaking listeners of English bands, but as I hope you will see there is something interesting in the lyrics of this song as well.)

The song Nak Tak Nak is performed by the Malaysian artist Nadia – real name Zarina Mohd (Mohammed) Ali – and is taken from her 1999 album Unggul (meaning Superior). According to her communication, she has written both the music and the lyrics of this song.

The name Nadia, comparing to her clearly Muslim real name, seems to indicate the will to address a Westernized or Westernization-leaning Malaysian audience, or simply young people bored by their families (because Nadia is both known in Muslim and Western cultures, it is more open to interpretation. However, it is far from being unmistakably Western, I must admit). The rather sober album jacket (see below) depicts her in what seems to me a post (decreasing) high trip condition, whatever the substance may have been, soft or otherwise, and so is hinting at the pusher culture so common in Western pop-rock music – remember the Beatles were the greatest pushers of all times (W.B. Key). It could also turn out that she is only recovering from a performance. In any case, to my knowledge, the drugs theme is absent from the lyrics I shall discuss. Nadia has reached celebrity status in Malaysia in the nineties.

Her voice in this song conveys a delightful boyish exuberance that accords finely with the story of adolescent uncertainties and self-affirmation which the lyrics, according to my understanding of it, is picturing.

The song, however fine, has not attracted much attention on YouTube, contrary to her famous hit Salam Untuk Kekasih, whose video has been viewed more than 2.6 million times. Please take a few minutes to listen:

Nadia Nak Tak Nak

 Now the lyrics.

……….

Nak Tak Nak

1

Nak tak nak kalau tak nak sudah ! (Nak tak nak !)

Menjadi kawan !

……….

2

Sungguh aku tak peduli apa orang kata

Tentang kita atau sesiapa (-a !)

Aku tak peduli kerna aku tak bersalah

Tak bersalah, tak bersalah.

………..

3

Sungguh aku tak peduli bila orang kata

Tentang kita atau sesiapa (-a !)

Aku tak peduli kerna aku lebih rela

Lebih rela

Menjadi kawan.

………..

2

………..

4

Sungguh aku tak peduli bila orang kata

Aku gila, aku gila (-a !)

Aku tak peduli kerna bukan gila

Bukan gila, bukan gila ( ya, ya, ya … )

………..

1(×3) – 2 – 3 – 1(×3)

………………..

Translation

Child No Child

……….

Stop thinking I’m a child,

And let’s be friends!

……….

Really I don’t care what people say

About us or anyone;

I don’t care because I’m doing no wrong,

Doing no wrong, doing no wrong.

………..

Really I don’t care what people say

About us or anyone;

I don’t care because above all I want,

Above all I want

To make friends with you.

……….

Really I don’t care when people say

I’m crazy, I’m crazy.

I don’t care because I ain’t crazy,

Ain’t crazy, ain’t crazy.

…………………

A few words on the translation.

As to the title of the song, and its first line, I am deliberately choosing a meaning that is not the obvious one a Malaysian speaker would understand first. As a matter of fact, the phrase Nak tak nak, kalau tak nak sudah, colloquially means: “Do you want or not: if not, then farewell,” and it would be understood as the careless, carefree invitation of a modern young woman to make “friends” with a man. It would be the customary rock’n’roll attitude everyone expects, and the conventions of informal language make it implicit that such is the meaning one has to retain. However, the word nak is a contraction of either one of two words, the first being to “want” (hendak), the second a “child” (anak). So the meaning I suggest reads as: The child is not a child; as there’s no child, farewell the child. Which means: The person you say is a child has grown up and her feelings are not those of a child anymore, so don’t call her a child. Which, again, means : Stop thinking I’m a child (because I love you).

With this meaning the lyrics is consistent and the story beautiful. With the other, more obvious meaning, the content is a slight. With this other one, “I can live with or without you,” for example – a slight to a woman, which is even worse –, one can’t help expecting the reply “A**hole.” The reply never comes, however, because broadcasting is one-sided.

The careless and offending meaning in Nadia’s lyrics derives from the fear of being a dupe of love. It is this fear that often makes double meaning compulsory in the language of passion, as a possible escape door. If I have been a dupe, then remember I told you I did not care! This is saving face. Besides, carelessness is supposed to be cool, whereas being in love is uncool: it is old-fashioned. (And, indeed, lack of passion must be cool if passion is of the nature of fire.)

I can’t live without you. No one would say such words these days. Yet everybody feels that this means love and that no other words could convey the feeling.

Some people, analyzing the lyrics of many love songs and finding them wanting in verisimilitude or analogy with real-life situations, have concluded that the singers are in fact addressing… their mothers, that they belong to a “maternally starved generation” (W.B. Key). That males in the Western world would be maternally deprived may indeed make sense, and yet love has always been crazy, so it is no surprise either when love songs do not seem to deal with the real world. But craziness is as real as rationality. Besides, there may exist fine natures that crave for the sufferings of passion and long for the martyrdom of love. These are the heroic natures, repressed in our times. Those people that feel a call to being heroes may experience the realm of love is the last possible ground of their endeavors. Some others might also sing the sufferings of love in order to be admired as heroes.

To conclude, the lyrics, as you have noted, is not particularly original. However, the song is moving. Because when someone says she doesn’t care what people say, the chances are she suffers from what people say. She wishes they would shut up. Admittedly, it can be a nuisance rather than suffering proper, but then the idea conveyed still is that of strength of character. In both cases, the story inspires reverence toward the young woman (almost a child) who dares endure being called crazy for the sake of her love or of going her way. If bombast underlies her words, and we ought to be scornful, then there aren’t many pieces of art that stand the test.

March 2015

Nadia Ali

Sanskrit-Based Indonesian-Thai-Urdu Correspondences

The following is a first installment (or rather I shall complete the present post piecemeal). My main sources have been: Indonesian: Dictionnaire indonésien-français (P. Labrousse), KBBI online; Thai: Thai English German Dictionary (J. Rohrer), Longdo online; Urdu: Oxford Urdu-English Dictionary. Entries are classed by alphabetical order of Indonesian words.

IN ajar-ajar (pertapa, pendeta, resi, zahid): teacher, guru, spiritual guide (the Sanskrit root is here duplicated, as sometimes happens in Indonesian words for reasons that are not altogether clear even to the cleverest linguists)
TH อาจารย์ (atjan) (a-tj-r-y) teacher
UR آچاریہ (atcharya) spiritual guide, scholar of the Vedas
SK आचार्य acharya

IN aksara (abjad; huruf) 1 alphabet 2 letter of the alphabet
TH อักษร (akson) (a-k-s-r), อักขระ (akkara) written character; alphabet
UR اکشر، اچّھر، اخچھر (akshar, atchar, akhtchar) letter of the alphabet; syllable
SK अक्षर aksara

IN amerta (tidak dapat mati, abadi; tidak terlupakan) immortal; unforgettable
TH อมตะ (amata): 1 (ไม่ตาย) immortal, everlasting 2 (นิพพาน) nirvana — อมฤต (น้ำทิพย์) (amrit): elixir; nirvana
UR امرت (amrit): nectar conferring immortality, water or elixir of life — امرت دھارا (amrit dhara): “amrit shower” or “amrit channel,” herbal cure-all of Ayurvedic medicine
All these words are one and the same, deriving from Sanskrit अमृत amrita. — See the name of the Sikh holy city in Punjab, Amritsar, “amrit pond”. — Another Urdu word for a cure-all elixir is اکسیر (iksir), from the Arabic word that has given “elixir” (al-iksir), and which designates also the philosophers’ stone.

IN angkusa, kusa: hook, goad, especially an elephant goad (prod with a sharp spike and hook to touch the elephant’s nerve spots)
TH อังกุศ (angkut) (a-ng-k-s)
UR انکس، آنکس (ankus)

IN angsa, gangsa: goose — angsa undan: swan
TH หงส์ (hong) (h-g-s): 1 hansa (legendary bird on which Brahma rode) 2 swan
UR ھنس (hans), also ھنس راج (hans raj), royal “hans”: swan
SK हंस hamsa

IN apsara (bidadari, makhluk kayangan)
TH อัปสร (นางฟ้า) (apsara)
UR اپسرا (apsara) 1 female dancer in the court of Inder, the king of the celestials; fig. beautiful woman
SK अप्सरस् apsaras

IN arhat, arahat (seorang pemeluk agama Buddha atau Jainisme yang telah terbebas belenggu hawa nafsu): in Buddhism and Jainism, one who has freed himself from the chains of lust
TH อรหันต์ (arahan): one who has attained enlightenment by following the teachings of the Buddha
UR ارہنت (arhant): (in Jainism) a divine being (considered the first man like Adam)
With respect to Thai context, the word appears in some of my translations on this blog.
SK अर्हन्त arhanta

IN asrama: 1 dormitory, hostel, residence hall 2 barracks
TH อาราม (วัด) (aram), อาศรม (asom) (a-s-r-m): temple, hermitage — พระอารามหลวง (pra-aram-luang) royal temple
UR آشرم (ashram): 1 hermitage, abode of a hermit or of a religious student 2 a class or a religious order 3 a place of refuge for orphans and widows 4 any one of the four stages of Brahmanic life scheme: Brahmachara, Grihista, Vanaprastha, Sannyas

IN asura
TH อสูร (asun) (a-s-r)
UR اسر؛ آسر (asur) 1 demon, fiend, evil spirit 2 fig. cruel
SK असुर, आसुर

IN aswa (kuda): horse
TH อัศว, อัศวา (atsawa) horse
UR اشو (ashw) horse — اشومیدھ (ashwamedh) Hind. sacrifice of a horse = TH อัศวเมธ (atsawamet)
SK अश्व ashva

IN bakti (hormat, tunduk; setia): homage, devotion; adj. loyal, faithful
TH ภักดี (pakdi): loyal, faithful
UR بھکتی (bhakti) adoration, devotion, worship

IN bangsa, wangsa: 1 nobleman, aristocrat; dynasty 2 ethnic group, race; species 3 nation — bunga bangsa: “flower, hope of the nation,” i.e. the youth
TH วงศ์ (wong) (w-ng-s): family, lineage, clan
UR ونش (wansh) race, clan, tribe
SK वंश vamsha

IN begawan, bagawan (gelar pendeta atau pertapa, wiku, resi, zahid): title of a spiritual master (in shadow plays, etc.)
TH ภควัต, ภควันต์, ภควาน (pakwat, pakawan, pakwan): Godhead; guardian spirit; Lord Buddha
UR بھاگوان (bhagwan) 1 lucky, fortunate; rich 2 adorable 3 divine — بھگوان (bhegwan) God, the Supreme Being — بھگوت (bhegwat) God; deity — بھگوت گیتا Bhagavad Gita, “Song of God”
Bandar Seri Begawan is the capital city of the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam. The sultans of Brunei formerly used the title Begawan, or Seri Begawan (see seri). Bandar is of Arabic origin (بندر), and means harbor.
SK भगवत् bhagavat

IN biara, bihara, wihara: convent, monastery, place of worship
TH วิหาร (วัด) (wihan) (w-h-r): 1 temple, monastery 2 building in a temple compound that houses a statue or statues of the Buddha
UR وہار (wihar): a Jain or Buddhist temple
SK वीहार vihara

IN biji: seed, grain; classif. for fruits or small round objects
TH พืช (peut) (p-j) plant
UR بیج (bij) seed, germ; source, origin; semen
SK बीज bija

IN biksu, biku, wiku (pendeta [Buddha] pria; petapa, resi): Buddhist monk; hermit
TH ภิกษุ (piksu): Buddhist monk
UR بھکشک (bhikshuk): beggar, mendicant — بھکس (bhiksh): life of dervish; becoming religious mendicant

IN bisa (racun): poison, venom
TH พิษ (pit) (p-s): poison, venom — พิษรัก (pitrak): “poison of love,” the destructive power of love and jealousy
UR بس (bis): poison, venom
SK विष visha

IN budi: 1 intelligence, reason 2 temperament 3 good deed — budi bahasa: “intelligence of speech,” i.e. good manners
TH พุทธิ (putti) intelligence cf. พุทธ (putt) Buddha; also วุฒิ (wuti) intelligence, qualification, seniority, prosperity
UR بودھ (budh) intelligence
SK बुद्धि buddhi

IN bumi (tanah; dunia) 1 earth, ground 2 world — bumiputra, bumiputera: “son of the earth,” native, the Nationalist concept of ethnic Malay (and other indigenous groups) in Malaysia
TH ภูมิ (pumi) 1 earth, ground, place 2 level, background — ภูมิภุช (พระเจ้าแผ่นดิน) (pumiput): “arm of the land,” i.e. king, monarch, sovereign
UR بھوم (bhum) land; world; ground; country; earth; domain
SK भूमि bhumi

IN buta: giant (mythical monster)
TH ภูต (put): ghost, demon
UR بھوت (bhut): 1 ghost, evil spirit, demon 2 a vicious or wicked person 3 the past 4 any of the five elements, i.e. earth, water, air, fire, ether 5 any living thing
The five elements are called IN pancabuta in Indonesian (see panca=5) and TH เบญจภูต (bentja-put) in Thai, but the word buta in this case does not seem to exist independently, with the meaning of element, besides the compound words here presented. — The lexical relationship between a kind of spirit and the elements might hint at a remote animistic conception, and reminds one of the “elementals” in some Western systems, such as Paracelsus’s.
SK भूत bhuta

IN cakra, cakera (roda): wheel
TH จักร (tjak) (tj-k-r): wheel, discus — จักริน,จักรี (tjakrin, tjakri us. transcribed Chakri): ” one who bears a discus”, a name of the God Vishnu, and the name of the Thai monarch of reigning Chakri dynasty, believed to be an avatar of Vishnu (Longdo dictionary)
UR چکر (chakkar) 1 wheel; circular motion; whirlpool 2 difficulty, quandary; anxious desire 3 giddiness 4 fraud, deception
The word is known as chakra in the West, having the technical sense associated with yoga practice.
SK चक्र chakra

IN candra, cendera (bulan; setengah dewah): 1 moon 2 half-god
TH จันทร์ (พระจันทร์) (tjan) (tj-n-d-r): moon
UR چاند (chand) 1 moon 2 lunar month 3 a gold ornament shaped like a half-moon (worn on the forehead) 4 crown — چندن (chendan) 1 the moon 2 silver
SK चन्द्र chandra

IN cendala (hina, buruk, cabul): vile, abject, debased
TH จัณฑาล (tjantan) (tj-n-t-l): outcast, despised
UR چنڈال (chandal) 1 Hind. lowest caste or a member of this caste; low-born, an outcast 2 miser 3 miscreant
The tchandala, actually ranking below the lowest caste proper (sudra) as well as below all living beings, is defined as the offspring of a woman of the highest caste with a man of the lowest. There must be this specific circumstance: the offspring of a man of the highest caste with a woman of the lowest caste is not so low as the tchandala. — The word has been used by Nietzsche as a surname for the “last man”, i.e. the last of men, namely the Western man.
SK चण्डाल chandala

IN cendana: sandalwood
TH จันทน์ (tjan) (tj-n-t-n): sandalwood
UR چندن (chendan): 1 sandal tree or its wood 2 mark made with red sandal on the forehead — صندل (sandal): same meaning (this last word is Arabic and the obvious origin of the European one; I presume it is itself the Arabic transcription of the Sanskrit; Urdu has thus two words for this object, one Sanskrit and one Arabic from Sanskrit.
SK चन्दन chandana

IN daksina (selatan; kanan) 1 south 2 right hand side
TH ทักษิณ (taksin) south; right hand side
UR دکّن، دکن، دکّھن (dakkan, dakan, dakkhan) south; Deccan (South India)
SK दक्षिण daksina

IN danta (gading): 1 elephant’s tusk; ivory 2 adj. white like ivory
TH ทันต์ (tan) (t-n-t): 1 tooth 2 elephant’s tusk
UR دانت (dant) 1 tooth 2 tusk (of an elephant or boar) 3 a projecting part, especially a cog on a saw or comb
SK दन्त danta

IN darma, dharma: 1 duty 2 charity
TH ธรรม, ธรรมะ (dam, dama) 1 universal truth 2 moral or social custom; right behavior
UR دھرم (dharm) 1 religion, faith 2 religious obligation 3 justice, law 4 morality, piety — دھرم یدھ (dharme yudh) “dharma war,” holy war; war according to dharma regulations
SK धर्म

IN delima: pomegranate — warna (merah) delima:  (light) red; batu delima: “pomegranate stone,” “red stone,” i.e. ruby
TH ทับทิม (taptim) pomegranate; ruby
UR ڈارم (darim) pomegranate
SK दाडिम, दालिम, दाडिम्ब dadima, dalima, dadimba

IN dewa: 1 god, deity 2 someone or something that is much revered 3 Bali. (gelar kasta Brahmana) title of the Brahmans
TH เทวา, เทวาดา (tewa, tewada): angel, deity; guardian spirit (of a place)
UR دیو (dev) deity; god — دیوتا (devata): 1 deity; god 2 an idol or image of god 3 fig. a good man, respectable person 4 an expert — دیوبانی (devabani): “language of gods,” i.e. Sanskrit — دیوداسی (devadasi): “slave of the gods,” devadasi, slave girl who serves a temple
SK देव

IN dosa: 1 sin 2 crime — dosa asal: original sin (the phrase is a Sanskrit-Arabic compound)
TH โทษ (tot) (t-s) evil, wickedness; punishment, penalty; to blame
UR دوش (dosh) sin, crime; blame, reproach; defect, blemish
SK दोष dosha

IN duka: grief, sorrow, affliction
TH ทุกข์ (tuk): sorrow, suffering, unhappiness
UR دکھ (dukh): affliction, distress; ache, pain
SK दू:ख duhkha

IN duli (debu): dust; archaic. a term used when talking of oneself before the sovereign
TH ธุลี (ปัดฝุ่น) (tuli): particle, dust particle
UR دھول (dhul): dust
SK धूलि dhuli

IN dupa (luban, setanggi): frankincense
TH ธูป (tup) frankincense — ธูปฤๅษี “hermit’s incense,” i.e., lesser bulrush (Typha angustifolia)
UR دھوپ (dhup) 1 sunlight 2 incense, fragrant gum burnt before idols
SK धूप dhupa

IN duta: ambassador
TH ทูต, ทูตา (tut, tuta): ambassador, envoy
UR دوت (dut): 1 ambassador; secret messenger 2 angel who passes between God and mortals
SK दूत duta

IN gajah: elephant
TH คช- (ช้าง) (kat) (k-ch), elephant; used in compound words, such as คชศาสตร์ (kachasat), branch of study dealing with elephants (see sastra), and คชาชีพ (kachachip), mahout
UR گج (gaj): elephant — گج پتی (gajapati): “elephants’ master” 1 lord or keeper of elephants 2 a title given to a king — گج موتی (gajamuti): “elephant’s pearl,” fine large pearl supposed to be found in the skull of an elephant (hence a variety of bezoar, besides those supposed to be found in the skulls of snakes and toads according to ancient Western beliefs, and South-Asian beliefs too) (see mote) — گج نال (gajanal): large gun or canon mounted on elephant
There is still another Sanskrit-based correspondence having the meaning of elephant, namely TH หัตถี (hatti) and UR ہاتھی (hathi).
SK गज gaja

IN ganja: hemp, ganja TH กัญชา UR گانجھا SK गञ्जा gajja

IN gegana (awan, udara; peledak) 1 cloud; atmosphere 2 explosive (n) TH คคนะ (kakana) sky UR گگن (gagan) sky (poet.) SK गगन gagana / sky, atmosphere

IN goa, gua, goha, guha: cave, cavern TH คูหา (kuha): cave, cavern (also คุหา); arched space, arched entrance UR کھوہ، کھو (khoh, kho) cave, cavern; a hole inside a tree trunk SK गुहा guha

IN guna: utility, virtue — guna-guna: black magic
TH คุณ (kun): 1 virtue, value, quality 2 black magic
UR گن (gun): 1 merit, virtue 2 talent, skill 3 good deeds — گنی (guni): one accomplished in black art
SK गुण guna

IN guru: teacher, master — mahaguru (guru besar): university professor (see maha)
TH ครู, คุรุ (kru, kuru): teacher, instructor
UR گرو (guru) 1spiritual guide; teacher, mentor 2 adj. respectable, honorable; wise
SK गुरु

IN indra, indera, indria: sense organ, the five senses
TH อินทรีย์ (intri) (i-n-tr-y) organic; organ; organism, body; body and soul; intellect, intelligence
UR اندری (indri) organ of sense or sex; organ of action
SK इन्द्रिय indriya / organ, sense, power of the senses; (adj.) belonging to Indra

IN isteri, istri, satri, siteri: married woman
TH สตรี (ผูหญิง) (satri): woman
UR استری (istiri): 1 female 2 wife
SK स्त्री stri

IN jala (jaring): net
TH ชาล (chan) (ch-l) net, mesh
UR جال (jal) 1 net, lattice 2 snare, trap (fig.) 3 magic 4 illusion
SK जाल jala

IN kala (waktu, ketika): moment, time, period, era; tense; prep. when
TH กาล (kan) (k-l) time, period, era; tense
UR کال (kal) time, age, era; famine; dearth, shortage; death
SK काल kala

IN kama (cinta, nafsu): love; desire — kamaloka (tempat Dewa Kama): abode of the Love God (see loka)
TH กาม (kam): sexual desire — บ้ากาม (ba-kam): “kama crazy,” oversexed
UR کام (kam): desire, wish; love; sex; passion — کامی (kami): lustful, oversexed
SK काम kama

IN kancana, kencana (emas): gold; fig. money
TH กาญจน์, กาญจนา (ทอง) (kan, kantjana): gold
UR کنچن (kanchan): gold; 2 fig. wealth; money
The main Indonesian word for gold is emas, sometimes written mas. In Thai we find the word มาศ (mat) (m-s), which means both gold and sulphur. There seems to be a correspondence here as well, though I do not know from what spring, because if in Urdu exists the word UR الماس (elmas), rather similar to emas, it is from Arabic and has the sense of diamond. IN Emas/Mas could be the Arabic word still, with some semantic shift, and the Thai similitude either fortuitous or a loan from Arabic as well (indirectly through the Malays).
SK काज्चन kajchana

IN kanta: lens — suryakanta: lens; magnifying glass (see surya)
TH กานต์ (เป๊นที่รัก) (kan) (k-n-t): beloved — จันทรกานต์ (tjantrakan): “moon’s beloved,” i.e. moonstone — สุริยกานต์ (suriyakan): “sun’s beloved,” i.e. burning glass
UR کاچ ؛ کانچ (kanch, kach): glass
My Thai source for “moon’s beloved” and “sun’s beloved” (Longdo) explains the etymology as follows. The moonstone is the moon’s beloved because it attracts the moonbeams, which make it moist. A burning glass is the sun’s beloved because it attracts sunbeams, which make it give fire. In this case TH is not derived from the Sankrit word for glass. An Indonesian Sanskrit-based word for glass is IN kaca, which could well derive from the same origin as UR. However, the etymology of my Thai source for suryakanta seems correct, because of the Indonesian male name Candrakanta (Chandrakanta) which makes sense as “moon’s beloved,” or “half-god beloved” (second meaning of candra in Indonesian), but not so much as “moon glass” or “moon lens”. As “beloved”, in Urdu, is said UR کج (kaj), seemingly we have here an intricate network of interpretations.
SK कान्ता kanta

IN kata: 1 word 2 to say
TH คาถา (kata): magic spell, incantation
UR کتھا (katha): 1 story, tale 2 Hind. religious story narrated as sermon
SK कथा katha

IN kawi (pengarang): writer — bahasa kawi: ancient Javanese; literary Javanese — kekawin: Javanese poetry
TH กวี (kawi): poet
UR کوی (kawi): poet
SK कवि kavi

IN kepala, pala: 1 head 2 leader
TH กบาล (หัว) (kapan) (k-p-l): head, skull
UR کپال (kepal): 1 head, skull; forehead 2 destiny — کپال کریا (kepal kirya): “skull ceremony,” the Hindu rite of breaking the skull of burnt corpses and then pouring ghee or melted oil in it — کپالی (kepali): 1 wearing skulls as a necklace; hermit who wears it 2 a practice among hermits for holding breath
SK कपाल kapala

IN kelam (hitam): black; dark, gloomy, rueful
TH กาฬ (สีดำ) (kan) (k-l): black; black mark of death (on corpses) — กาฬาวกหัตถี (kalawakhatti): a black-skinned mythical elephant (see my Thai glossary here)
UR کالا (kala): 1 black; dark 2 black man 3 any black snake, usually a cobra — کالی (kali): black woman; Hindu goddess Kali, “the black goddess”
SK काल kala

IN kerama (tulah): curse; misfortune
TH กรรม (kam) (k-r-m) 1 act, deed 2 sin 3 karma
UR کرم (karm): 1 fate 2 deed, work; karma 3 religious acts or duties 4 product, result, effect
SK कर्म karma

IN kumba (belanga atau buyung): jar, waterpot; constellation of Aquarius
TH กุมภ์ (kum) (k-m-p) jar; Aquarius — กุมภการ (kumpakan) potter
UR کمبھ، کنبھ (kumbh, kunbh) jar; Aquarius; a measure of grain — کمبھ کا میلا Hindu religious festival Kumbh Mela
SK कुम्भ kumbha

IN lingga
TH ลิงค์, ลึงค์ (ling, leng)
UR لنگ (ling): penis, phallus
SK लिङ्ग

IN logam (from Sanskrit via Tamil): metal
TH โลหา (loha): metal
UR لوہا (loha): iron
SK लोह loha

IN loka (tempat): place; region
TH โลก (lok): the world, the earth, world
UR لوک (lok): 1 world; region 2 people; folk — ترلوک (trilok): the three worlds, i.e. heaven, earth, and the lower regions (taken together); the universe
SK लोक loka

IN madu: 1 honey 2 (manis sekali) very pleasing or charming — madukara (lebah): honeybee (a Sanskrit word too)
TH มธุ (matu) — มธุรส (maturot) “honey-tasting,” i.e. sugarcane; มธุฤณ (matutrin) “honey grass,” i.e. sugarcane (both names from Sanskrit)
UR مدھ (madh) 1 honey 2 grape wine; intoxicating liquor or drug 3 passion; lust 4 spring season 5 prime of youth 6 pride, arrogance
SK मधु madhu

IN maha: great
TH มหา (maha): great
UR مہا (maha): great — مہادیو (mahadev): “great God,” epithet of Shiva — مہاراجہ : maharaja

IN makara, mengkara: dragon; ornamental pattern representing a mythical monster; constellation of Capricorn
TH มังกร, มกร (mangkon, makon, makara) dragon; Capricorn
UR مکر (makar) dragon; Capricorn
SK मकर makara

IN makhota, makota: crown
TH มกุฎ,มงกุฎ (makut, mongkut): crown
UR مُکٹ ؛ مُکُٹ (mukut, muket): crown
SK मुकुट mukuta

IN malai (untaian): garland, wreath
TH มาลัย, มาลา (malai, mala) garland, wreath
UR مالا (mala) garland; rosary
SK माला, माल्य mala, malya

IN mandala: circle; area; province, district
TH มณฑล (monton) (m-n-t-l): circle; precinct; county, province
UR منڈل (mandal): 1 circle; sphere 2 round tent or house 3 the sky 4 the headman of village
SK मण्डल

IN mangsa: 1 prey 2 (daging) flesh, meat — madumangsa: “honey flesh,” i.e. a certain sweet confection (see Madu)
TH มังสะ, มางสะ (mangsa) flesh, meat
UR ماس، مانس (mas, mans) flesh, meat
SK मांस mamsa

IN manikam (batu permata; ark. mani): gem, precious stone; archaic. semen
TH มณี (mani): precious stones, gems
UR مانک (manek): jewel; ruby; quartz
As we can see, IN has two meanings (one being archaic): gem and semen. The selfsame meanings are found in the Indonesian word IN jauhar (intan; mani, benih manusia), a term of Arabic origin (جوھر) that exists also in Urdu vocabulary. In both Arabic and Urdu, it has the following meanings: jewel, gem; & essence, matter, substance. The relationships are quite interesting.
SK मणि, मणिक mani, manika

IN mantra, mantera, mentera: magic formula
TH มนตร์, มนต์ (mon) (m-n-t-r): prayer, incantation, magic spell
UR منتر (mantar): 1 mantra 2 spell, charm, incantation 3 spiritual instructions 4 Hind. a passage of the Vedas; holy text 5 advice
SK मन्त्र

IN mantri, manteri, menteri: public servant
TH มนตรี (montri): councilor — รัฐมนตรี (rattamontri): minister
UR منتری (mantri): 1 minister 2 counselor 3 sorcerer, magician
SK मन्त्रिन् mantrin

IN manusia: man, human being
TH มนุษย์ (manut): rational being, human being
UR منو ؛ مانو (manu): 1 man, human 2 Hind. name of the classical lawgiver Manu
SK मनुष्य manushia

IN marga: 1 (jalan) road 2 (dasar, rukun) base, fundation
TH มรรค, มรรคา (mak, maka) (m-r-k) 1 road, way (esp. Bud. the way to the cessation of suffering) 2 cause
UR مارگ (marg) 1 road, way 2 antidote, remedy
SK मार्ग marga

IN matra: 1 dimension, measure 2 basic rhythmic unit (in music) — ekamatra: unidimensional; trimatra: three-dimensional
TH มาตร, มาตรา (mat, matra) unit, standard; meter
UR ماترا (matra) 1 measure, quantity 2 particle, atom 3 element 4 basic unit (in music)
SK मात्र matra

IN maya: illusion
TH มายา (maya): deception
UR مایا (maya): 1 prosperity, riches, wealth 2 illusion 3 mercy, compassion 4 wisdom 5 miracle 6 nature; world; universe 8 soul; spirit
SK माया

IN mega (awan [di langit]): cloud
TH เมฆ (mek) cloud
UR میگھ (megh) cloud; rain — میگھ پاتی Meghapati, lord of the clouds, an epithet of Indra
SK मेघ megha

IN melati: Arabian jasmine (Jasminum sambac), one of the three national flowers of Indonesia
TH มาลาตี, มะลิ (malati, mali): Jasminum sambac
UR مالتی (malti): 1 a kind of jasmine 2 a name given to different species of shrubs 3 young woman
SK मालती malati

IN mitra (teman; kawan kerja) 1 friend 2 colleague
TH มิตร (mit) (m-t-r) friend
UR میت (mit) friend; lover
SK मित्र mitra

IN mote, mute, muti, mutia, mutiara: pearl
TH มุตตา (ไข่มุก) (mutta): pearl; opal
UR موتی (moti): pearl; fig. tear — موتی مسجد (moti masjid): “pearl mosque”, name of several mosques in India and Pakistan (Agra, Delhi, Lahore), and in Malaysia with the name masjid mutiara
SK मुक्त mukta

IN muka: 1 face, visage 2 person 3 facade; surface 4 prep. in front of
TH มุข (muk) face; mouth — นทีมุข (natimuk) estuary
UR مکھ (mukh) mouth; face; adj. principal, chief
SK मुख mukha

IN mula: 1 beginning 2 origin, source
TH มูล (mula): base, origin, source, root
UR مول (mul): 1 root; origin 2 generation
SK मूल mula

IN naga
TH นาค (nak)
UR ناگ (nag): snake; cobra — ناگ کنیا (nag kanya): “nâg virgin”, Hind. race of very beautiful females said to inhabit the regions under the earth
Naga snakes are an ubiquitous feature of South-East Asian cultures.
SK नाग

IN nama: 1 name 2 fame
TH นาม (nam): 1 name 2 noun
UR نام (nam): 1 name 2 fame
SK नामन् naman

IN nara (orang; pahlawan) 1 man 2 hero — narapati (raja): king
TH นร,นฤ (nora) man — นรสิงห์ (norasingh) a great warrior (in memory of Vishnu’s fourth incarnation, as a lion-man) (see Singa)
UR نر (nar) man
SK नर nara

IN negara: state, country, nation
TH นคร (nakon) (n-k-r) city, town
UR نکر (nakar) city, town
The Sanskrit word means a city or a town, as appears in both Thai and Urdu, whereas in Indonesian the word designates a whole country. Another Indonesian word from the same root, the word negari, or nagari, still holds the original meaning of city or town, among those of nation and province or provincial district as well.
SK नगर, नगरी nagara, nagari

IN neraka, naraka
TH นรก (narok)
UR نرکھ ؛ نرک (nark, narkh): hell
SK नरक naraka

IN nila, nilam (biru): blue — batu nilam: blue sapphire — nilakandi: sapphire; langit nilakandi: blue sky
TH นิล (nin) (n-l): sapphire; blue black, black green — สีนิลา (สีเขียวเหมือนดอกอัญชัน คือสีน้ำเงินนั่นเอง) (si-nila): this color is described as being “green as the flower of the butterfly pea, that is, for the sake of precision, blue.” I am told that Cambodian language has one word for both blue and green (and that the extistent distinct words are not used in common speech); so there seems to be the same sort of ambiguity in Thai perception too.
UR نیل (nil): 1 nil, a plant which yields the dye indigo 2 dark blue — نیلا (nila): blue — نیلم (nilam): sapphire — نیلم پری (nilam peri): “sapphire fairy,” a very beautiful woman
SK नील nila

IN nira: sweet sap of the palm tree, of coconuts, etc.
TH นีร (nira) water — นีรช (niracha) “water-born,” i.e. lotus
UR نیر (nir) water; fig. tears
SK नीर nira / water, sap, juice

IN padma, patma: water lily, lotus
TH ปทุม (ดอกบัว) (patum): lotus — ปทุมา (patuma): Siam tulip (Curcuma alismatifolia)
UR پدم (padam): 1 lotus 2 Hind. a posture in religious meditation — پدما (padma): of lotus color; fair colored, beautiful; an epithet of goddess Lakshmi, wife of Vishnu
SK पद्म padma

IN paksi (burung): bird
TH ปักษี, ปักษา (นก) (paksi, paksa): bird — ปักษีสวรรค์ (paksi-sawan): bird of paradise (see sorga)
UR پنچھی (panchhi): bird
SK पक्षिन् paksin

IN panca: 5 — pancasila: the Five Principles of the Indonesian state (One God [ketuhanan yang maha esa], civilization, unity of Indonesia, democracy, social justice) — pancawarna: multicolored
TH เบญจ- (bentja): 5 — เบญจกัลยาณี (bentja-kanlayani): 1 the five attributes of a beautiful woman (beautiful hair, red gums and lips, beautiful teeth, beautiful skin, good looks at any age) 2 lady — เบญจธรรม (bentja-tam): the 5 rules of good behavior (compassion, charity, sexual discipline, truthfulness, mental discipline) (see darma)
UR پنج ؛ پنجہ (pancha, panch): 5

IN papa (berdosa; KBBI Hin. terbelenggu oleh indria dan tidak lagi ingat akan hakikatnya sebagai manusia): 1 guilty; sinful 2 (Balinese Hinduism) to be chained by the senses and forgetful of one’s human nature
TH บาป (bap) the commonest word used in Thai for sin; evil deed
UR پاپ (pap) sin, crime; calamity, hardship
SK पाप papa

IN pendeta, pendita, pandita: 1 priest; hermit 2 a reverend divine (esp. a Protestant clergyman)
TH บัณฑิต (pantit) 1 graduate 2 scholar
UR پنڈت (pandit): 1 a learned or wise man, one versed in Hindu religious lore; Brahman 2 a master of classical music 3 fortune-teller; astrologer
SK पण्डित pandita

IN pertiwi (bumi) earth — Dewi Pertiwi: Earth Goddess; Ibu Pertiwi: homeland, motherland TH ปฐวี, ปฐพี, ปถวี (patawi, patapi): earth — ปฐพีวิทยา pedology (the science is named not after the Sanskrit name of feet but after a Sanskrit name of the earth, presumably because feet are the part of the body in contact with the earth) UR پرتھوی (prithivi) earth; world; earth personified as the mother of all beings SK पृथिवी, पृथ्वी prithivi, prithvi

IN pestaka, pustaka (kitab; kitab primbon; pengaruh baik atau buruk yang ada pada suatu benda dsb: pestaka keris) 1 book 2 magic book, grimoire 3 influence, good or evil, of an object etc, for instance of a dagger (kris) — ilmu pestaka: black magic “i rimedi contro tutte le malattie … sono registrati in antichi codici con le pagine in scorza d’albero, e si chiamano pustaha (sic)” (Arnaldo Fraccaroli, Sumatra e Giava, 1942)
TH โปตถกะ (pottaka) book, scripture
UR پشتک (pushtak) book
SK पुस्तक pustaka

IN pisacha
TH ปีศาจ (pisat)
UR پساچ ؛ پشاچ (pishach, pisach)
A demon of Hindu legends; very much alive, particularly, in Thai folklore and occult beliefs.
SK पिशाच pishacha

IN puspa (bunga): flower — puspa pesona (anggrek bulan): “magic flower” (also “moon orchid”), that is, the moth orchid (Phalaenopsis amabilis)
TH บุปผา, บุษบา (buppa, butsaba): flower  — บุษบาบัณ flower market
UR پشپ (pushp) flower
SK पुष्प pushpa

IN putra, putera: 1 prince 2 son, child — putri, puteri: 1 princess 2 daughter — bumiputra (see bumi)
TH บุตร (บุตรชาย), บุตรี (บุตรหญิง) (but, butri): child (masculine and feminine)
UR پتری ؛ پتر (putr, putri): son; daughter
SK पुत्र putra पुत्री putri

IN raja: 1 king 2 traditional leader — raja jin: king of jinns — maharaja, maraja
TH ราช (rat) (r-ch)
UR راجا (raja): king
SK राज raja

IN raksasa, rasaksa, raseksa
TH รักขสะ (rakkasa)
UR راچھس ؛ راکثس (raksas, rashhas)
A demon of Hindu legends.
SK राक्षस raksasa

IN rasi, raksi 1 constellation, sign of the zodiac 2 horoscope
TH ราศี (rasi) 1 group 2 sign of the zodiac 3 grandeur, splendor
UR راس (ras): 1 sign of the zodiac 2 luck 3 adoption (of a child)
SK राशि rashi

IN ratna, retna, rakna, rana: gemstone — ratna kencana: “gold gemstone,” i.e. topaz (see Kancana), also called ratna cempaka, “champac gemstone”
TH รัตน์, รัตนะ (rat, ratna)  — นิลรัตน์ (ninlarat) sapphire (see Nila)
UR رتن (ratan) — رتن مالا (ratan mala) 1 necklace of jewels 2 name of an ancient Hindu book on astronomy (see Malai) — رتن سنگھاسن، رتن سبہاسن (ratan-singhasan, ratan-sinhasan) throne (“lion’s seat”) adorned with precious stones
SK रत्न ratna

IN resi: spiritual master, wise man
TH ฤาษี (resi): hermit
UR رشی (rishi): inspired poet or sage; anchorite
SK ऋषि rshi

IN rupa: 1 form, appearance 2 sort, kind
TH รูป (rup): 1 picture 2 form, shape — พระพุทธรูป (praputta-rup): statue of the Buddha
UR روپ (rup) 1 appearance, form 2 beauty 3 manner, style
There exists one more correspondence relating to the same object, between TH and UR, namely TH อรูป (arup), shapeless, incorporeal, immaterial, and UR اروپ (arup), 1 Hind. transcending form, formless (used for God) 2 ugly, unsightly. The a- in the construct is the Sanskrit form of -less.
SK रूप rupa

IN sakar (gula; zat gula dalam darah): sugar; blood glucose
TH สกขรา (sakkara) sugar
UR شکر (shakar) sugar, sweetness
SK शर्कर sharkara

IN sakti, syakti: 1 having magical powers 2 sacred, holy
TH ศักติ (sakti): female representation in a deity
UR شکتی (shakti): 1 power, strength; capability 2 Hind. energy or active power of a deity 3 the female representation in Hindu deity

IN samudra, samudera, semudera (lautan; ki. akbar, besar, raksasa) 1 ocean 2 large, big
TH สมุทร (samut) (s-m-t-r) sea, ocean — the geographic oceans (Indian, Pacific etc) are มหาสมุทร (maha-samut) plus name
UR سمندر، سمُندر (samandar, samundar) sea, ocean — as samandar (or samandal), also the name of the mythical salamander
SK समुद्र samudra

IN sastra, sastera: 1literary language 2 literature 3 Hindu holy book; learning book 4 (kitab, pustaka) book 5 (tulisan, huruf) writing character
TH ศาสตร์ (sat) (s-s-t-r): science; knowledge (mostly used in compound words to denominate the various branches of knowledge)
UR شاستر (shastar): 1 order, command; rule, precept 2 any of the several books codifying Hindu religious rites, rules of worship, social life, etc.
SK शास्त्र shastra

IN satru, seteru, satron (lawan, musuh): enemy
TH ศัตรู (satru) enemy
UR شترو (shatru) enemy
SK शत्रु shatru

IN selira (badan): body
TH สรีระ (sarira) body — สรีรธาตุ remnants of a cremated body; สารีริกธาตุ Buddha’s relic
UR سریر، شریر (sarir, sharir) body; life
SK शरीर sharira

IN semadi, samadi, semedi, samedi: (transcendental) meditation
TH สมาธิ (samati): concentration; meditation, contemplation
UR سمادھی (samadhi): 1 Hind. shrine where ashes of the dead are kept or buried; the seat or burial spot of a yogi, particularly of one who by religious motives submits to be buried alive 2 an exercise of austerity whereby yogis are supposed to acquire the power to suspend the relation between body and soul; mystic contemplation
SK समाधि

IN seri: 1 splendor, gleam 2 title of king or sultan
TH ศิริ, ศรี (siri, sri): honor; glory
UR شری (shri) 1 splendor, glory, light 2 title used before the name of a deity or a holy book 3 honorific title used before the name of a man (in this last meaning, also سری, siri)
SK श्री shri

IN singa: lion
TH สิงห์ (sing): a mythical beast, wild and strong, that lives in Himmapan forest — สิงโต (singto): lion
UR سنگھ (singh): lion
SK सिंह simha

IN sirah (kepala): head
TH ศีรษะ (sirasa) head
UR سر، سِر (sar, sir) head — سر کٹا headless ghost (reminiscent of the Thai ผีหัวขาด, as well as of the headless horseman from The Legend of Sleepy Hollow)
SK शिर्ष shirsha

IN sorga, surga, swarga: paradise — suargaloka: abode of the gods (see loka)
TH สวรรค์ (sawan) (s-w-r-k): heaven, paradise
UR سورگ ؛ سُرگ (surg, swarg): 1 Hind. heaven 2 in Hindi poetry, a symbol for the number 21 (an allusion to the twenty-one heavens)
SK स्वर्ग svarga

IN suami (laki): husband
TH สามี (sami): husband
UR سوامی (swami): 1 lord, master; owner 2 head of a Hindu religious order 3 husband

IN suci (bersih; murni, zakiah; keramat) 1 clean 2 pure 3 holy — bulan suci: holy month, the month of Ramadan
TH สุจิ (sutji) clean; pure — the negative form อสุจิ (asutji) in นำ้อสุจิ “unclean water,” i.e. sperm
UR شدھ (shudh) clean; pure — شذھی (shuddhi) purification; a political movement of early twentieth century for spreading Hinduism (reconverting Indians to Hinduism)
SK शुचि shuchi

IN suka: happiness, joy, pleasure
TH สุข (suk): physical and spiritual well-being
UR سکھ (sukh): rest, ease; comfort; happiness
SK सुख sukha

IN sula: sharp vertical stake (for impalement or for husking coconuts) — juru sula (algojo): executioner
TH ศูละ (หลาว) (sula) (s-l) spear, javelin
UR سول (sul): 1 thorn, spike 2 point of a spear
SK शूल shula

IN surya, suria (matahari) — (see kanta)
TH สุริยะ (พระอาทิตย์) (surya)
UR سورج (suraj): the sun
SK सूर्य surya

IN tapa: asceticism
TH ตบะ (taba): penance, religious austerity
UR توبہ (toba): renunciation, repentance, vowing to sin no more, penitence
SK तपस्या tapasya

IN trisula
TH ตรีศูล (trisun)
UR ترسول (tirsul): trident, used as a symbol of Shiva (see sula; tri is Sanskrit for 3: three-pointed spear)
SK त्रिशूल Shiva’s weapon / trishula

IN utara: north
TH อุดร (udon) (u-d-r) north; left hand side
UR اتر (uttar) the north
SK उत्तर uttara

IN wana (hutan, rimba): forest
TH พนา (pana) forest — พนาศรม forest hermitage (see Asrama)
UR بن (ban) forest; cotton crop —  کجلی بن forest frequented by elephants; name of a forest in Bengal
SK वन vana

IN wanara (kera, monyet): ape, monkey
TH วานร, พานร (wanon, panon) (w-n-r, p-n-r) monkey
UR بندر (bandar) monkey — بندر والا man with a performing monkey
TH वनर vanara

IN warna: 1 color 2 (kasta, golongan) caste
TH วรรณ, วรรณะ (wan, wana) (w-r-n) caste; complexion
UR ورن، ورَن (warn, waran) 1 appearance, complexion 2 race, caste 3 dress
SK वर्ण varna

IN wilmana, walimana (kenderaan dewa yang berupa burung besar): mythical bird used as mount
TH วิมาน (ที่อยู่ของเทวดา) (wiman): celestial mansion, abode of the deities
UR ومان (wiman): 1 Hind. carriage of the gods 2 aeroplane 3 any carriage or vehicle
SK विमान

IN wira: 1 (laki-laki, pahlawan) hero 2 (berani) brave, courageous
TH วิร- (wira) brave, courageous — วิรบุรุษ (wira-burut) hero
UR ویر (wir) 1 heroic, brave 2 hero 3 brother; son
SK वीर vira

IN yudha (perang): war
TH ยุทธ, ยุทธ์ (สงคราม) (yut): war, battle — ยุทธภูมิ (สนามรบ) (yuttapumi): battlefield (see bumi)
UR یدھ (yudh): war, battle — دھرم یدھ : “dharma war” (see darma)
SK युद्ध yuddha

February 2015

For more Thai words of Sanskrit origin, see here.